Increased Risk for Death in Youths Taking High-Dose Antipsychotics

By Psychiatry Advisor

In youths taking a high dose of antipsychotic medication, the risk for an unexpected death is >3.5-fold than in youths not taking one, according to study results published in JAMA Psychiatry.

Researchers retrospectively analyzed Medicaid data to create 3 study cohorts of youths 5 to 24 years old not diagnosed with schizophrenia or related psychoses. The first cohort was composed of young people taking an oral antipsychotic at a dosage >50 mg; the second cohort was composed of children taking an oral antipsychotic medication ≤50 mg; the third cohort was composed of children taking a control medication, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications, antidepressants, or mood stabilizers. Deaths during the study were classified as either injury or suicide, unexpected death not because of overdose, or unexpected death because of cardiovascular or metabolic causes.

Of the 30,120 participants taking a high dose of antipsychotic medication, 39.2% were women, the mean age was 14.5±4.8 years old, and the most commonly prescribed medication was quetiapine. Of the 28,377 participants taking a low dose of antipsychotic medication, 32.3% were women, the mean age was 11.7±4.4 years old, and the most commonly prescribed medication was risperidone. Of the 189,361 participants taking a control medication, 43.4% were women, the mean age was 12±5.1 years old, 49.6% were prescribed antidepressants, 42.9% were prescribed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications, and 7.5% were prescribed mood stabilizers.

The high-dose cohort had 40 deaths, which translated to 146.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 107.3-199.4), which was significantly higher than the control cohort (P <.001). The low-dose cohort had 8 deaths, which translated to 49.5 (95% CI, 24.8-99.0) per 100,000 person-years. The control-medication cohort had 67 deaths, which translated to 54.5 (95% CI, 42.9-69.2) per 100,000 person-years. The risk for death was 80% greater in the high-dose cohort than in the control cohort (hazard ratio (HR)1.80; 95% CI, 1.06-3.07), for any type of unexpected death (HR 3.51; 95% CI, 1.54-7.96), for injury or suicide (HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.53-2.01), for unexpected deaths from unintentional drug overdose (HR 3.51; 95% CI, 0.99-12.43), and for unexpected death because of cardiovascular or metabolic causes (HR 4.29; 95% CI, 1.33-13.89).

Future studies should consider increasing sample size to further evaluate the association of specific antipsychotic medications, analyze potential drug interactions, and differentiate between cardiovascular and metabolic events.

The researchers concluded young people prescribed a high dose of antipsychotic medication “had a 3.5-fold increased risk [for] unexpected deaths… [and t]hese results appear to reinforce recommendations for careful prescribing and monitoring of antipsychotic regimens for children and youths and the need for larger antipsychotic safety studies in this population.”

Reference

Ray WA, Stein CM, Murray KT, et al. Association of antipsychotic treatment with risk of unexpected death among children and youths [published online December 12, 2018]. JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3421

Drug Abuse And Nigerian Youths -By Jerome- Mario Utomi

By Opinion Nigeria

I remember with nostalgia how participants at a focused group discussion held recently in Lagos, bemoaned infestation of our nation by social problems perpetrated consciously and unconsciously by her own people. Warning that under this condition, it may be thought audacious to talk of creating a better society while we are still battling with the problems of battered economy arising from corruption, social vices and decay of institutions.

Among these social challenges, it was clearly stated that the consumption of drugs in amounts and methods not authorized by medical professionals has become but a silent reality that Nigerians should worry about. Noting that though the act cuts across all strata, powerful statistics make it abundantly clear that the youths-majorly males with a sprinkle of females remain undefeated in this act. The gathering had as a theme; The Alarming Increase in Drug Abuse: What Did We Do Wrong? , organized by the Justice and Peace Development Centre (JDPC), Ketu, Lagos.

Indeed, the worries by the participants without fail has become a living reality validated by a reported sex romp by four students (three boys and a girl) at the sunshine Lodge, Ihiagwa, one of the satellite communities close to the Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), Imo state that left three out of the four students dead while the boys were taking turns to have sex with the girl after allegedly taking a mixture of tramadol, codeine and vodka.

Certainly, a striking human tragedy deepened by the awareness that it was avoidable particularly when one remembers that this incident occurred neither by accident nor as the first half of a reoccurring circle but rather the beginning of something new.

To explain; for decades, we have been warned with mountains of evidence that this was coming, yet, our leaders who are never ready to serve or save the citizens ignored the warnings describing it as a prank.

Now we have learnt a very useful lesson that we can no longer ignore.

The tragedy in a private hostel has additionally brought to the core governments wicKed underfunding challenge of, and incompetence in providing basic facilities such as hostel accommodation to the educational sector- a malady that runs deep through successive administrations.

If adequate hostel accommodation were provided within the school premises by the government, chances are that monitoring of these youths would have been enhanced.

But more important than all of these lessons is the urgent need to remap strategies to curb reassurance because if the results of the FUTO sex scandal looKs ugly and frightening, what is to come from what medical experts are saying may be worse if serious positive actions are not taken.

Going by these reports, there are but three main forms of drug abuse. They include the use of; mood-altering or psycho-active drugs, performance-enhancing drug and dependency drugs.

While mood-altering or psychoactive drugs such as Codeine, tramadol affect people’s reasoning ability and give the abuser wrong sense of wellbeing, performance-enhancing drugs such as cocaine, heroin drug give extra stamina or energy to the abuser. Dependency drugs on its part typify drugs people abuse in the course of trying to overcome some health issue or challenges or taken to maintain a particular lifestyle.

So what does this mean to our nation where every day ‘exciting progress” is made in the consumption of these substances without recourse to prescription. This stunning awareness in my views has made getting to the cause of this social challenge more compelling.

Certainly, it will by no means be an exaggeration to state that apart from negative peer influence, unemployment and a continuous avenue to escape problems and worries are the major reason why Nigeran youths take to the drug.

This, however, may not be the only explanation fueling this social evil.

Specifically, the deliberate desire by these youths to hide their weaknesses, failure on the part of the family to train the youths on the way they should go, broken home influence, and pressure to succeed at all cost also promote this social menace.

Regrettably, a common fact that abusers fail to remember is that aside from the wide belief that throughout history more people have silently been destroyed by substance abuse than any other cause, drug abuse according to psychologists, has never helped any individual involved.

As an illustration, it is factually supported that drug consumption in amounts or methods not authorized by medical professionals have in the past led to mental disorder, disrupted the abuser’s education and future, poor attitude to work, health problems such as lung disease, heart disease and deaths among others.

From this standpoint, it is a clear socioeconomic problem that we collectively as a nation will have to determine how to solve- as the future strength of our nation depends on these young people.

Catalyzing this process will among other solutions require the government and its agencies to come up with effective reforms and teamwork that will tackle the challenge from its roots.

I hold an opinion that what the government is doing in this direction is but a palliative which only relieves temporal distress, but leaves the disease and its ravages unaffected.

To succeed in this job, an effort expected from the government must have skill development and job creation for the youths at its centre. This approach to the problem is not without successful precedents. Addressing the perennial education sector funding and the infrastructural challenge will also be a right step taken in the right direction by the government.

Re-orientation on our cultural values by faith-based organizations and the civil society groups will assist the youths to drop illicit consumption of drugs and unwholesome behaviours that endanger their lives and threatens the society.

Parents and guardians must strive to influence which people capture their children imaginations and always be aware of who their friends are and what places they frequent. And always put the youths in the presence of people of great accomplishment whom they want them to emulate.

These in the words of Ben Carson are things that used to be done quite routinely by caring guardians but now many young people derive their identity from their peer groups and their social network which can be extensive.

Youths on their part must recognize that ‘the future is full of promises as it is fraught with uncertainty. And should, therefore, develop the capacity to seek activities laced with highest values

Source Opinion Nigeria

Nigeria: Youth get N450,000 prizes for innovative ideas

By Risikat Ramoni

Out of 50 youth who attended the first-ever health Designation in Nigeria, three teams have been rewarded with up to N450,000 in cash prizes, entrepreneurship start-up kits, certificate of attendance, and other prizes for their innovative ideas on HIV self-testing among the Nigerian youths.

The three-day Designathon which was held at the Digital Bridge Institute in Lagos recently was organized by the 4Youth By Youth Group (4YBY) and funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH).

ITEST Principal investigator, Dr. Juliet Iwelunmor said, “We want to give young talented people the spaces, the resources and the tools they need to ‘think outside of the box’ and develop solutions to encourage other young people self-test for HIV. According to research, one in five youths have never tested for HIV.”

To ensure more youths are tested in the comfort of their home, the designathon was then organized so youths can create solutions for other youths to benefit from, she noted.

The organisers said the programme seeks to promote Nigerian youth participation in innovation and entrepreneurship that will lead to sustainable solutions for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) prevention in Nigeria.

Participants were empowered with materials that helped them bring their ideas to life. Judges from various industries chose the top three teams with the most viable ideas and designs.

The five teams which participated will also take part in a 4-week boot camp where they will be trained by knowledgeable mentors on how to become successful entrepreneurs.

Source Daily Trust

Nigeria: Know your HIV status through self-testing, experts counsel youths

A Public Health Specialist, Dr. Oliver Ezechi, has encouraged Nigerian youths to know their HIV status through self-testing to help in eliminating the infection.

Ezechi, a member of the Nigerian National HIV Treatment Task Team at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, spoke on Friday in Lagos at a programme tagged: 4 Youth by Youth Designathon 2019.

The News Agency of Nigeria reports that the programme was organised by NIMR, in conjunction with the Saint Louis University, Missouri; University of North Caroline and New York University; and it is the first Designathon for health in Nigeria.

It is similar to a Hackathon, a 48-hour event in which young people from all over Nigeria will ideate, design and present their self-devised solutions to social and health issues.

This Designathon is dedicated to developing new services or products that can promote self-testing for HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Ezechi said that knowing your HIV status, especially youths was the best way to help in eliminating HIV completely in the country.

“We are all aware of the recent HIV reports which says HIV has dropped in the country.

“There is a particular groups, which is the young persons, because new infections are still occurring among young persons, women and young girls.

“If we really want to get to the 9090 targets of eliminating HIV/AIDS, the first 90, meaning 90 per cent of people who have HIV, should know their status.

“The entry point for the treatment is HIV counsel and testing; we noticed that young people are not coming forward to our hospitals and clinics to get tested because of stigma.

“What we are doing today is to bring up a competition in which young persons assemble together, design and get best strategy for them on HIV self testing,” Ezechi said.

He also said that NIMR was charged for research on national health, and part of the mandate was to bring in international and national bodies on the best move to implement HIV self testing.

In her remarks, Dr Juliet Iwelunmor, a global health implementation scientist, said their goals were to encourage and let everyone to know their HIV status.

Iwelunmor, an Associate Professor in Global Health at Saint Louis University in Missouri, said that the way by which they could easily know their status was through HIV self testing.

“Our idea is to work with the Nigerian youths and expand HIV oral self testing in Nigeria.

“The data basically says one in five youths have never been tested for HIV; they don’t know their HIV status.

“The beauty of our project is that we the researchers do not want to tell youths to go for test, but they can come up with ideas on HIV self testing.

“The innovation of the self testing for HIV in Nigeria should be low cost, accessible, youth friendly and confidential.

“To ultimately make them apply the HIV self testing, the idea we are having today, is to bring in young Nigerians between the ages of 14 and 25 years.

“For the next couple of days, we will be working with them to design products, services and technology which will make their fellow Nigeria youths to also embrace self test for HIV,” she said.

Iwelunmor said that about 127 entries from Nigeria youths were submitted, but 13 youths were qualified to show case their ideas and techniques.

“After sharing their ideas and techniques, they will move to the third phase, which is the entrepreneur phase; we are going to work with them.

“HIV testing usually occurs in so many places, especially in clinics settings, but we find out that many young people do not show up for testing.

“HIV self testing kits will help people to do the testing in their privacy and get their results within 20 minutes,” she said.

Also speaking, Dr Joseph Tucker, an infectious diseases physician, said that HIV self testing would help every Nigeria youths to know their HIV status.

Tucker, who works with London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, said the aim was to create health services that were more youths friendly.

“We discovered that across sub-Saharan Africa countries, many of their focus is on adult and thereby neglect the youth.

“We need to involve youths in eliminating and preventing HIV in Nigeria,” he said.

Source Punch

Healthy Lifestyle For youth

Featured photo credit: EFFi Foods

BY Susan Chioma Obasi

Youth are usually energetic, vibrant, active, and often times they eat a lot. Most times, they eat sugary foods, fatty foods and so much more. They eat whatever pleases them being ignorant of the fact that such foods may cause more harm than good to their health.

In fact such foods will certainly have a negative effect on their health in later adulthood.

Living healthy is very crucial. One cannot argue but attest to the fact that a healthy lifestyle prolongs one’s life. One has to do the needful in order to stay healthy. You can take advantage of these nuggets >>>

Eating rightly: Most people want to eat as much as they can, and still remain fit; you cannot reconcile both because most foods they eat are considered “deadly”. These “deadly” foods can be referred to as junk. To stay in good shape and live a healthy lifestyle, experts advise that we ‘should not lie down immediately after meal because it slows down the whole process of digestion.

The acid treated stomach contents flow upwards to the gullet. When this becomes a habit, this acid will eventually cause damage which can lead to heartburn or chronic coughing as the case may be. Experts also advise that it is only advisable to wait for at least two hours after meal before going to bed.

According to eufic.com, eating rightly includes drinking plenty of fluids, having a diet plan, enjoying plenty of fruits and vegetables, maintaining a healthy body weight, reduction of sugar and salt intake and many more.

Exercising: When it comes to mental and physical exertion, most people believe that exercising only means shedding some fat. As a matter of fact, exercising is also a way of keeping fit. You don’t have to be big before you exercise. Again to experts, ‘exercising reduces the risk of chronic diseases, decreases blood pressure, reduces stress, improves insulin sensitivity’.

Different types of exercise according to experts include aerobic exercises (examples jogging, dancing, biking, playing tennis); strength exercises (examples lifting free weights, gyming); flexibility exercises (examples yoga, stretching of various parts of the body) etc.

ReST: The usefulness of rest can also not be over-emphasized. Rest helps to relax the mind, and also the body. It keeps us mentally, physically and socially balanced and stable. After a stressful and hectic day, the right thing to do is to relax. You can relax by sleeping, take a walk, spend time with family and friends, try out something new like making a new dish, or listen to good music.

The youth should keep these in mind as it will help them live a healthy life. As the saying goes, ‘health is wealth’ hence what one eats is very important.

Source Daily Trust

Ethiopia: Addis Ababa Takes Off 2,000 Street Children


Officially commencing the rehabilitation of street children in Capital of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, last night the city administration has lifted 2,000 street children volunteered to enter rehabilitation centers.


Last night 300 volunteers and popular figures along with the officials of the city administration have participated in taking the children into the rehabilitation centers. The administration will be implimenting the rehabilitation in collaboration with Ethiopia’s Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs and the Addis Ababa Youth and Sport Bureau.

Led by the recently appointed popular Deputy Mayor of Addis Ababa City, Takele Umma, a few days ago the City has introduced an independently run trust fund that plans to rehabilitate some 50,000 street children including women and other people currently living on the streets of Addis Ababa.

The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs has planned to cover the cost of 10,009 street dwellers. The information from the Ministry shows that out of the total, the cost of 5009 inhabitants will be covered by the ministry whereas another 5000 will be subsidized by Addis Ababa City Administration.

A few days ago Deputy Mayor Takele indicated that the trust fund will have six rehabilitation centers and works with the administrations of other regions of Ethiopia from where the street children are coming from.

The trust fund will be using contributions from the mega state enterprises such as the Ethiopia Airlines, which is expected to provide over 400 million birr per year from its tickets sell. The trust fund has also launched a short messaging line 6400 to raise funds from the public.

The fund which also aims to raise more funds through music concerts of famous singers like Teddy Afro and Achalu Hunde as well as mobilize the Ethiopians in the diaspora to raise more funds, aims to fiancé other social services such as school feeding programs in Addis Ababa, according to Deputy Mayor Takele Umma.

In Ethiopia reports show that over 150,000 people live on streets of which most are children. Out of this Addis Ababa is estimated to host around 60,000. While, reports show that HIV/AIDS has already orphaned over one million children in Ethiopia.


Source nbe


NGO Undertakes Drug Abuse Campaign At Navrongo SHS in Ghana


By Alika Gabriel


Foundation Against Drug Abuse – Ghana known as FADA-GH, youth advocacy and a non-profit organization with the sole aim of mobilizing individuals from all walks of life to effectively fight against the abuse of drugs among the Ghanaian youth through has embarked on a health education outreach and counseling services at the Navrongo Senior High School (NAVASCO ) in the Upper East Region of Ghana.

As part of the foundation’s mission of creating awareness on the negative impact of drug abuse on the individual’s health, the society and country at large, the CEO of FADA GH Mr. Alika Gabriel, who is a Physician Assistant student decided to tour both the Northern and Southern sectors of the country of to spread the message to the masses.

In view of this, the commencement of the northern sector tour was observed in NAVASCO where Mr. Alika together with some members of the foundation embarked on a health education programme.

It was also meant to give a health talk on drug abuse. The target audience were the students, teaching and non-teaching staff of NAVASCO.

In his speech, during the program, He talked on a wide range of subjects relating to the abuse of drugs touching on the term drug abuse where the emphasis was made on the drug called Tramadol which has become the most commonly abused drug today.

He had said Tramadol also is known in the market as Ultram or Ultracet, a prescription that relieves pain and is used for the treatment of moderate pain.

Its actions of mechanism in the body is characterized by the inhibition of the mu-opioid receptor and also inhibition of the re-uptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain.

He made it clear that once an individual takes in a drug under no prescription thus usually self-medication leading to the misuse or wrong application of the drug, then the drug has been subjected to abuse.

Mr.Gabriel Alika , also made known to his audience the consequences or effects of abusing drugs where he stated that the effects of drug abuse can be classified into either long-term effects or short-term (immediate) effects.

He indicated that though Tramadol itself inhibits the mu-opioid receptor, it’s metabolites have a stronger affinity to the mu-opioid receptor leading to some desirable effects such as analgesia, euphoria, lack of inhibition, and mellowed effects.

Effects such as nausea, drowsiness, appetite loss, dizziness, insomnia, excessive sweating, and vomiting may also occur and these are classified as immediate effects.

He added that, if a drug user constantly practices the use of the drug over a period of time and develops resistance or tolerance to the drug, then the user in order to achieve the desired effects of the drug may subject himself or herself to an overdose or basically an abuse 9f the drug.

When this occurs, certain long term effects such as neurological toxicity which may result in comas and seizures, respiratory failure, mild cardiovascular disruptions leading to hypertension and tachycardia, and serotonin syndrome which is characterized by a marked increased concentration of serotonin in the synapses between neurons in the brain may be observed.

He also made mention of some general cause of drug abuse where he talked about curiosity, per influence, ignorance, over dependency, and among others.

The concerned campaigner also touched on the relationship between addiction and mental health where he made mention of the increased prevalence of substance abuse in patients reporting mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety and also the experiencing of hallucinations while using or withdrawing from a drug presenting a more of a psychiatric crisis instead of addiction crisis due to overlapping symptomatology.

Mr. Alika further urged all individuals present to abstain from the use of unprescribed drugs and also the abuse of drugs while encouraging whoever amongst them already in the practice to put a stop to it in order to embrace a healthy lifestyle.

Before the FADA GH team left NAVASCO, they made sure a legacy was left behind. In this light, the senior girls’ prefect of the school was presented with a FADA GH branded attire and also the campaign ambassador on campus.


Source Modern Ghana


Nigeria: HIV positive youths send SOS to Buhari over extortion, neglect in treatment centres.

By Luminous Jannamike

Adolescents and youths living with HIV in Nigeria have appealed to President Muhammadu Buhari to take urgent steps in addressing the challenges confronting the nation’s HIV response agenda which prevent them from accessing treatment services.

The adolescents, under the aegis of Association of Positive Youth living with HIV in Nigeria (APYIN), lamented that many of their members have been compelled to skip medical appointments owing to extortionist tendencies on the part of service providers and the poor psychosocial support available to them at treatment centres. Speaking with reporters on Friday in Abuja, APYIN National Coordinator, Isah Mohammed, said:

“The government of Nigeria signed an agreement with the US Government to provide counterpart funding of 25% for the HIV treatment and care but did not live up to this agreement. This has affected the provision of some laboratory services like chemistry and creatinine testing.

“The treatment and care service providers have now used this as a window to charge fees for services, including consultancy and routine testing like CD4 Count Testing which are free in the program. This is extortion. Especially, since the Minister of Health has declared in several forums and times that HIV services are free in Nigeria.

“Many adolescents and youth living with HIV, especially the vulnerable and unemployed ones have resorted to skipping clinic appointments because of high medical bills.

“Added to that, relevant psychosocial interventions that could address the emotional and psychological issues affecting the adolescents living with HIV are under-prioritized or completely left out in the treatment plan. “This is therefore a call to the government of President Buhari to save our souls by redeeming its pledges in funding agreements with partners and releasing the 1% Consolidated Revenue Fund for Health Programs.

“We call on the Honourable Minister of Health to ensure that his pronouncement of free HIV services is met with quality oversight so that the services are truly free. “We also call on the people of Nigeria in this period of elections to use their PVC’s to demand for quality care for adolescents and youth living with HIV.”

This article was first published on Vanguard

The World Needs To Address The Issue Of Youths Addiction To Hard Drugs And Alcohol

By Ndu Oriji

This is an issue the world have to address. Some people are making money at the expense of other people’s health, selling brews that are infused with high addictives and sell poison as relief for ailments and put a barn on things that are actually supposed to be a cure.

People don’t drink because they want to, they are just addictive because the manufacturers put stuff in the drinks to make people dependent on it. Really sad.

The Functions And Damages Alcohol Effects To The Human Body.

Study shows, the chemical inside alcohol is called ethanol, is not addictive in itself. But what ethanol chemical reactions causes in our brains are addictive, here is how;

The chemicals responsible for delivering messages from nerve cell to nerve cell, it tells our bodies how to function, this type of functions are called neurotransmitters. They moved from transport sites to receptor sites on the nerves, your heartbeat, your breathing, your blinking, your digesting, and a multitude of other functions rely on neurotransmitters.

The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human body is gamma-aminobutyric acid, known as GABA. It is responsible for reducing excitability in the brain.

Alcohol increases the amount of GABA transmitted, which inhibits the brain to abnormal degrees. Long-term alcohol abuse forces the brain to adapt to this increased inhibition Glutamate increases brain activity, essentially counteracting the increased levels of GABA.

Therefore, The more alcohol we consumed, the more GABA and glutamate will be transmitted. This chemical chain reaction is what causes a tolerance to alcohol. Even when alcoholics are experiencing impared judgements, balance problem, profound confusion anterogade amnesia, pulmonary aspiration and respiratory depression, they still maintain a tolerance to alcohol and unfortunately more and more drinks produces the same effect.

The Effects of Drug Abuse and Addiction

According to Gate Way Foundation, Drugs are chemicals that affect the body and brain. Different drugs can have different effects. Some effects of drugs include health consequences that are long-lasting and permanent. They can even continue after a person has stopped taking the substance.

There are a few ways a person can take drugs, including injection, inhalation and ingestion. The effects of the drug on the body can depend on how the drug is delivered. For example, the injection of drugs directly into the bloodstream has an immediate impact, while ingestion has a delayed effect. But all misused drugs affect the brain. They cause large amounts of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate our emotions, motivation and feelings of pleasure, to flood the brain and produce a “high.” Eventually, drugs can change how the brain works and interfere with a person’s ability to make choices, leading to intense cravings and compulsive drug use. Over time, this behavior can turn into a substance dependency, or drug addiction.

Today, more than 7 million people suffer from an illicit drug disorder, and one in four deaths results from illicit drug use. In fact, more deaths, illnesses and disabilities are associated with drug abuse than any other preventable health condition. People suffering from drug and alcohol addiction also have a higher risk of unintentional injuries, accidents and domestic violence incidents.

How To Tackle The Issue

The first thing is to recognize why they started drinking and smoking, and then why it became excessive, then you can handle the issue.

I was trying to help a friend stay away from Codeine back at school and it wasn’t working, so I asked him why he started taking it in the first place, he said, “His mom was constantly calling and nagging about family issues.” We intervened to a point where we had to ask the registrar to call his mum and educate her on the effects of her nagging on her son’s mental and emotional health. That was when we started seeing results.

We can also offer counselling or rehab to help reduce drinking and smoking of drugs and alcohol consumption in Africa, because is destroying our young ones on a daily basis.

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