How Does Parents and Society Help to Shape Teens Behavior?

By Martha Holden

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Society plays an important role in shaping an individual’s character. It helps shape teens’ ability to live with other people, their ideas of wrong and right and their general outlook on life. As a parent, your influence is the strongest and often shapes your teen’s adult life, according to the Christian Broadcasting Network. Understanding the influence various aspects of society have on your teen helps you nurture your teen’s character and individuality.

Parents

Parents spend a lot of time with teens and influence them through their actions and words. Teenagers learn skills such as nurturing, socializing, and decision-making through observation and communication with parents. The relationship between teens and their parents influences their outcome in life. Involved parenting is more likely to prevent behavior such as drug and substance abuse or teenage pregnancy. Although teenagers may seem rebellious, they are likely to adapt the good behaviors as they mature.

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Media

The media can have a positive or a negative influence on your teen. Teenagers spend a lot of their time on the Internet, watching TV, reading magazines and listening to music. Negative influencers in the media include violence, hateful or vulgar language in movies and music, explicit sex scenes, gender, religious or ethnic stereotyping, and unrealistic representations of success and body image. Alternatively, the media is a source of information for teens. It helps create cultural, political and social awareness in teens. Teens also get a better understanding of their environment and society.

Friends

Friends create a community that influences the decisions that your teenager makes. Friends may challenge each other to become better individuals or influence each other to adopt negative behavior. According to Valarie Ulene, writing for the Los Angeles Times, the influence friends have on each other may affect a teen’s performance in academics and sports, socials skills and decision-making skills. However, you can help your teen develop self-confidence and a sense of individuality through involved parenting and continuous communication.

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Community

The community sets rules that help form your teenager’s ideas of right and wrong. Teenagers have a better understanding of acceptable behavior and consequences of doing wrong, as set by communal laws. This understanding may help your teen choose the right behavior to avoid consequences like imprisonment. The community also helps create cultural and environmental awareness. Additionally, teenagers learn to care for the environment, their neighbors and the less fortunate by interacting with various members of the community.

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7 Things That Can Destroy The Life Of Any Young Man


By Danceville


There are many things that can destroy the life of a young man, hurt their destiny, stop their growth, slow their progress or block their advancement in life.All young men should know this things and avoid them.

1. Living Without Purpose And Vision

A friend of mine once said, “Guys of nowadays love Television buh don’t have Vision “.This is nothing buh the truth.Most guys don’t have vision, aspiration or even a plan for tomorrow.You can’t be the best in any trade if you don’t have anything you’re pursuing.

2. Alcohol And Drug

The use of alcohol and drug is another way young men ruin their lives.When a young man is exposed to drug and alcohol at a very tender age, the effects goes beyond what they ever expect in life, as they easily get inducted into the dark world of crime.

3. Wrong Association

The company a young man walks with, will ultimately determine what he will become.Choose your friends wisely.Some friends are multipliers while some are destroyers.A wise man once said “Show me your friends and I can accurately predict your future.The company you keep determines your accomplishments.

4. Crime

Wrong association and information, leads to drugs and alcohol usage.The resultant effects are crime, gang fights, cultism, armed robbery murder etc. At the end, the law catches up with those young ones and helps them waste many years in the college for stubborn and foolish prison yards.

5. Sexual Immoralities

Lust, fornication, pornography, rape, masturbation etc are all sexual immoralities and serves as a media the devil uses to destroy the life of young men.Don’t expose yourself to them, don’t company with those that are involved in it because it will end up destroying you.

6. Laziness

Hatred of work, oversleeping, indolent lifestyle is dangerous to the life of any single man.A man, I mean a real man should be bold enough to work, he must be a man of the field, planting and harvesting for his future.When a man is a lover of his bed, lazy and lukewarm, there’s no way he will not serve his mates and live in abject poverty and penury throughout is lifetime.

Last buh not the least..

7. Love Of Money

Love of money is a great destroyer of many young men nowadays.Some even results in rituals, that later end up their lives soon.Don’t think without money, you can’t reach that place you desired to be.. And always remember, Vanity Upon Vanity, All Is Vanity.

NB

This thread is meant for everybody.The way young men is destroying their lives in this Society, is appalling.Are you guilty of any of these? Please it isn’t too late to make a CHANGE…

I drop my pen at this Juncture.

Feel free to add yours.

Please share this post among your friends..

You might just SAVE A SOUL..


Written And Compiled By
DanceVille


Please help me to give this thread a wider coverage.A soul might be save through this post.


If your Childhood Sucked – It’s Time to Stop Blaming Your Parents!


By Craig Harper


Dear Parent Blamer,

Firstly let me say, stop it.


It’s pathetic and pointless. And for the rest of us innocent bystanders… very annoying.

To be completely honest, we’re sick of your whining, your complaining, your anger, your victim mentality and your inability to see that your current attitude (not some historical event) is your biggest problem. We’re also sick of you blaming your (current) bad behaviour on your parents. What’s standing between you and success right now is YOU. Not your folks, not your history… you. And the fact that you think THEY have sabotaged your life and are somehow responsible for your (current) stupid behaviours and less-than-desirable outcomes, wreaks of denial, immaturity and delusion.

Yes, we all get that your childhood, or parts thereof, sucked – welcome to the world’s largest club.

We also get that your old man was periodically a completely insensitive, uncommunicative at times. Sadly, that’s what (many) fathers do. And yep, we know that your mother was a selfish cow that time when you were in the eighth (and ninth and tenth) grade; it happens.

Okay, let’s be honest and blunt… some parents are crap. And yes, many of us have been hurt – physically, emotionally and/or psychologically – by our parents. I am not suggesting that you deny your past, but I am suggesting that you don’t live there. It’ll kill you. In ten different ways. Some people have been inhabiting the seventies and eighties and re-visiting their childhood for the last few decades.

No matter how much you think your parents deserve your anger, vitriol and resentment, I’m telling you (1) it serves no positive purpose (2) it will hurt you more than them (3) stop being a big, immature, stupid baby and (4) you and only you, are responsible for your current reality – no matter what your parents have or haven’t done to you, or for you.

Even though you may have a very good ‘reason’ to be eternally pissed at your folks, I’m saying let it go anyway. Move on. And it’s not about what they do or don’t deserve; it’s about what you deserve. If you want to destroy your potential, your enthusiasm, your optimism and your hope, then become a chronic Parent Blamer. Hang on to that hurt, no matter what!

Or you could let me save you some serious time and pain and just believe me when I tell you that being a Parent Blamer is a pointless, destructive, pathetic waste of your potential and emotional energy. And if you’re not careful, a waste of your life. It will destroy you from the inside out. It’s true; some people will die angry, bitter, resentful and tortured souls because they never found a way to let go of the self-perpetuated – yep, read that clearly, self-perpetuated – misery. When you’re still desperately holding on to emotional crap from years ago, it’s YOU that’s the problem. When you’re twenty five, thirty five or fifty five and you’re still thinking, talking and behaving like a teenager who’s mad at their parents, you need a big reality check.

The only thing you can change about the past, is how you let it affect you now.

You may wanna read that again.

Over the years I have worked with people who have blamed their parents for everything from their poor communication skills, dysfunctional relationships, destructive habits and violent behaviours, to their fat body and poor eating habits. What!!! Do you not have a brain in your head? Are you incapable of independent thought? Can you not make your own decisions, choose your own behaviours and be responsible for your own existence? Surely you feed yourself these days? Surely you have some control over what comes out of your mouth? And surely you can choose to do, be and create different in your world.

Perhaps your parents taught you how not to be?

Let me say that I totally understand that your parents weren’t always what they should or could have been for you as a child (caring, supportive, forgiving, understanding, loving, available, guiding, honest). You have my sympathy and understanding but you’re not alone. You’re in a very large majority. The problem with parents is that they’re flawed and that whole ‘being human’ thing kind of gets in the way of parental perfection. If only parents were cyborgs.

Today’s article is the result of an inordinate amount of recent conversations I’ve had with people who are hell-bent on blaming their parents for every aspect of their own miserable and dysfunctional existence. Sometimes the vitriol, the anger, the resentment and dare I say, the absolute hatred, that people hang on to (for decades) amazes and saddens me.

The parental blame game is a slippery slope of self-pity, self-destruction and futility that’s played by far too many people to their own detriment. It’s a game you’re advised to avoid.

Hope this letter finds you well,

Craig.


This article was first published at www.lifehack.org


2Face tasks Nigerian youth on nation building

The fun city of Jos was thrown into huge fun party when the 3rd edition of 2Face’s Jos Chillin’ Mega Fiesta train came calling penultimate Saturday.

In its third Season, the concert came complete with a fresh dimension as it showcased the on-going social re-engineering campaign, tagged ‘Power of 1’; a campaign championed by afro-pop music legend, 2Face idibia, challenging young Nigerians to embrace the responsibility of fixing Nigeria one challenge at a time.

Highpoints of the concert was 2Face’s’s inspiring Power of 1 message urging the crowd to take their destinies in their own hands.

Headline acts, 2Face, Falz, DJ Jimmy Jatt, Alexx Ekubo, Mr Real and Osama leading a host of J-City acts added colour to the concert which took place at Mees Palace.

Supported by the 2Baba Foundation, One Voice Nigeria, Enough is Enough, and Vote Not Fight, ‘Power of 1’ is driven through concerts, road shows and a movie of the same title directed by Izu Ojukwu starring Ramsey Nouah, Alexx Ekubo, Annie Idibia, Jibola Dabo, Jide Kosoko, Racheal Oniga, Michelle Dede, Padita Agu and many more.

Proceedings began with opening acts, Lucky Stars Band, Richy Roo, Mad Dragon All-stars, Lyrical Dr Smith and Classiq whose set created uproar when MI Abaga made a surprise appearance.

Source Vanguard Nigeria

Young Entrepreneurs, This Is How You Start A Profitable Business


By Nicolas Cole


If you’re young, and you are entrepreneurial, your single greatest asset is your age.

What they fail to tell you in school is that being “older” doesn’t necessarily make you “better.” What it makes you is different.

When you’re older, you see things through a lens created through years and years of varying experiences. In your industry (and/or tangential industries), you’ve learned what works, what doesn’t work, what people want and what they don’t want. You know the rules of the game. You know how people operate. And above all, you know enough to where you don’t feel not defeated when someone says that scary word, “No.”

All those things are great — and immensely valuable. But they are not what makes someone “better.”

Young people see life through an equally valuable, and different, lens.

When you’re young, you tend to be more instinctual than logical.

I have absolutely found this to be true for myself, as a young entrepreneur. While older individuals have an immense amount of knowledge at their fingertips, they tend to be quite logical when making decisions. Like I said, they have experiences they can point to that taught them what worked and what didn’t, and make future decisions largely based upon those prior learnings.

Young entrepreneurs don’t have that luxury. They don’t have those experiences yet. And so, for better or worse, they are forced to make decisions based on instinct — what feels right, and what appears to be most obvious to them at the time.

The best businesses for young entrepreneurs to start are ones that build off any current working knowledge.

My parents used to tell me all the time, “Cole, do what you love, and be the best at what you do. That way, you’ll be both successful and happy.”

At 27 years old, I still consider myself to be a relatively young entrepreneur. My business, Digital Press, is a writing agency. We help CEOs and founders write more thoughtful articles, based on the insight they share with us. Before Digital Press, I was a freelance writer. And before that, I was studied creative writing in school.

From an outside perspective, the writing world is extremely saturated. Do you have any idea how many “blog posts” are written on the Internet each day? Millions. Nobody would ever look at the content writing space and think, “Wow, that’s a really untapped market — I should start a business there.”

Unfortunately, most young entrepreneurs think this way. Instead of auditing their own skill sets, they look for what’s easy and available. They poke around and base their decisions on what appears to be open territory — only to begin on the journey and learn the hard lesson that no industry is free from competition.

I didn’t think about it this way.

I heeded my parents’ advice: “I love writing, so I will become one of the best writers on the Internet.”

By the time I launched Digital Press, I knew the digital writing space better than anyone.

I had walked the walk myself, had studied all my competitors, had learned all the different ways people make money in this space, how, where, and why.

But most of all, I knew that if I pursued something I had a genuine interest in, I would be far more successful than if I tried to force myself to get excited about something I truly didn’t care about.

What’s interesting though (and this is where all young entrepreneurs should pay attention), my age has ended up working to my advantage.

I am young enough to be a “child of the Internet.” I speak the language fluently, and my early experiences as a competitive teenage gamer taught me how to see the Internet differently than most older, more “experienced” people in this space.

And yet, I am old enough and mature enough to understand the fundamentals of business. I’ve worked for an advertising agency. I’ve worked personally with 100+ CEOs. I have learned how to speak their language, without forgetting how to speak my own.

This, right here, is every young entrepreneur’s greatest advantage.

You have to remember what it is you’re bringing to the table, and why it’s valuable. And a large part of that is your instinct, and how “tuned in” you are to what’s happening in the digital world.

Now, where a lot of young entrepreneurs fail is they think that’s enough (instinct and gut) and it’s not. Just like how older business leaders need young people to help them keep pushing boundaries, young entrepreneurs need to learn from their older counterparts the ins and outs of the business world — and how that game works.

If you want to start a profitable business, then don’t pursue what other successful people have done just because you think it’ll be successful.

It’s going to be hard regardless.

There is going to be competition no matter which direction you choose.

So choose something you’re already genuinely interested in — and then work hard to learn everything else you need in order to bring that idea to life.


This article was first published at www.medium.com


Be true ambassadors of Zimbabwe, Catholic youths urged

By Environment & tourism

Environment, Tourism and Hospitality Industry Minister Cde Prisca Mupfumira, has sent off some 128 catholic youths who will attend the World Youth Day in Panama which will commence from the 22nd to the 27th of this month.

The Minister urged the youths to be the face of the country as true ambassadors.

The 128 youths from the Roman Catholic Church will leave the country this week to attend one of the church’s biggest events, the World Youth Day to be hosted in Panama, Central America, where they will join other catholic members from across the globe.

A colourful farewell dinner for the delegation was hosted on Wednesday evening where Minister Mupfumira called upon the youths to be the face of tourism for the country saying the event is not only for religious purposes, but also an opportunity to market the country as a resort destination.

Father Cloud Maganga who will lead the delegation said the World Youth Day has not only benefitted catholic members, but also has a positive bearing on the community at large.

Some of the youths heading for Panama are confident the networking and idea-exchange with other youths will have a worthy influence to their respective communities when they return from this global event.

The World Youth Day is a global catholic event held after every two to three years.

The last gathering was in Poland in 2016.

Meanwhile, Panama was listed by the national geographic traveller as the 4th must visit tourism destination after Zimbabwe which is 3rd, Germany 2nd and Sri-Lanka which is the 1st, hence the visit is an opportunity to tie tourism relations between the two countries.

Source ZBC

Morocco’s Hakimi Wins Africa’s Youth Player Of The Year Award

Uchenna Ajah

Borussia Dortmund’s Achraf Hakimi claimed the CAF Africa’s youth player of the year top prize in Dakar

The Germany-based midfielder toppled the Nigeria’s Wilfried Ndidi and Cote d’Ivoire’s Franck Kessie to the prestigious award

The 2018 CAF award night was held in Dakar, Senegal

Morocco’s Achraf Hakimi beat Super Eagles midfielder Wilfried Ndidi and Cote d’Ivoire’s Franck Kessie to Africa’s youth player of the year top prize.

Hakimi had a decent summer World Cup with Morocco and also playing huge part in Borussia Dortmund’s excellent form in the German Bundesliga.

On the other hand, Ndidi who missed out of the award, plies his trade in the English topflight had a spectacular year with Leicester City.

He represented Nigeria at the summer World Cup in Russia and also played a huge role in qualifying Nigeria for the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON) in Egypt.

While Kessie, on his part remains a regular face in Gennaro Gattuso’s AC Milan side in the Italian Italian topflight.

Earlier, Legit.ng reported that Super Eagles midfielder Wilfried Ndidi was nominated for the young player award category by the Confederation of African Football (CAF).

The Nigerian international will battle Morocco’s Achraf Hakimi and Cote d’Ivoire’s Franck Kessie for the award.

Ndidi had a splendid year with Leicester City in the Premier League while Hakimi had a decent World Cup with Morocco and also played a part in Borussia Dortmund’s dominance in the Bundesliga.

Source Legit.com

NRM youth protest against UK Parliament discussion on Uganda’s democracy, three arrested

By DERRICK WANDERA

A section of youth claiming to be National Resistance Movement supporters have taken to Kamwokya streets to protest the decision by the United Kingdom Parliament to discuss the democracy of Uganda.

The youths who donned yellow NRM shirts held placards and other written material reading, “Back off Dr William. You are not a Ugandan”. The youth threw stones and matched to the British High Commission Offices in Kamwokya, Kampala saying they do not want the discussion to continue.

Police swung into action and cooled the commotion that was already disrupting the traffic and arrested three of the members.

Mr Luke Owoyesigire, Kampala Metropolitan Police spokesperson said the three are being held at Kira Road Police station on charges of inciting violence.

“We are yet to take statements from them to know what they were exactly doing but we shall hold them until they tell us what the matter is,” Mr Owoyesigire said.

The UK minister of State for Africa, Mr Harriett Baldwin, on Tuesday evening said adherence to democracy, democratic processes such as rule of law and strong institutions are at the core of their development agenda in Uganda, and they continue to engage government on the matter.

The minister for International Cooperation, Mr Okello Oryem, in response to the allegations said he has no apologies to the UK government.

He said after 30 years of stability and prosperity, the agenda to destabilise is back on course.

“It is funny at this particular moment when chaos and turmoil engulf the Democratic Republic of Congo, commotion in South Sudan, a coup attempt in Gabon and Bashir struggling in Sudan, then Williams chooses Uganda,” Mr Oryem said.

Source Daily Monitor

Support SA youth to launch their tech careers

By Darryl Linington

In December 2018 at the CapaCiTi campus in Salt River, Cape Town, 340 young South Africans completed their technical training and received their certificates. They are now ready to be placed within tech internships in Cape Town and Johannesburg.

CapaCiTi, the Cape Innovation & Technology Initiative (CiTi)’s Tech Career Accelerator, has been preparing young people for the tech sector for 8 years. The organisation’s aim is to support both youth and business in the hubs of Johannesburg and Cape Town. Now, CapaCiTi is inviting SA businesses to interview these ambitious future tech professionals for an internship – to begin work as soon as possible.

With SA’s youth unemployment skyrocketing, CapaCiTi seeks to leverage growing opportunities in the tech sector by providing key technology skills. Indeed, CapaCiTi’s programmes are essentially accelerated career pathways for previously unemployed youth. Key to the initiative’s success, however, is the commitment by SA businesses to create internship opportunities for youth. Such opportunities are urgently required in order for young professionals to apply and grow their technical skills and confidence in the workplace. In turn, organisations are able to access temporary tech support for their teams and projects, which is particularly valuable at the start of a year.

“This year, CapaCiTi is proud to have equipped several hundred SA youth with the relevant training and coaching they need to accelerate their careers into the tech sector. We’re calling on South African businesses to support our future talent on the next six months of their journey, helping them to apply and build their skills and confidence and contribute to the digital economy. They’re ambitious, tenacious, and will add huge value to your teams as you kick off 2019. These young people are the future of South Africa’s tech sector, let’s all join together to help them start their journey towards a successful career that will be life-changing,” states Fiona Tabraham, Acting Head of Skills Development, CiTi.

Since 2010, CapaCiTi has partnered with close to 150 leading organisations to hire interns and graduates. Corporates such as Media24, BCX and Absa have been strong supporters of interns and grads from the Accelerator, as well as a growing list of SAAS businesses and digital agencies.

“Absa has had tremendous success with the talented young people from CapaCiTi’s programmes. Since 2016, we’ve taken on 55 talented interns, and 16 going on to full-time employment with Absa, which we are looking to scale up significantly with CapaCiTi over the next few years. Their aptitude, attitude and aspiration has blown us away! They are hard-working, passionate about technology and creative, with the maturity to negotiate the trickiness of working in teams, as well as rise to the challenge when we put them in leadership positions,” states Alwyn van Wyk, Head of Cape Town Dev Shop, Absa.

The Interns:

CapaCiTi had a large group of youth completing programmes in December 2018, who are ready to join business teams in January. These young people were all unemployed or under-employed when entering the programmes, and have now completed an intensive programme in a technical discipline relevant to skills in-demand in the tech sector. Importantly, they received coaching and skills training to prepare them for the 2019 workplace – critical and creative thinking, collaboration, presentation, etc.

These ambitious young people are now ready to apply and amplify their knowledge during a 6-month internship, to gain the experience they need to land a tech job.

What they’ve learnt:

CapaCiTi’s programmes run from 9 to 12 months and are designed for matrics and graduates looking to start a career in IT.

  • The interns available to start in January 2019 in Cape Town and Johannesburg have completed an intensive training programme in the following:
  • Software Engineering – Trained in Java, Python [CPT & JHB]
  • Full-Stack Development – Trained in Full Stack Mobile Dev, Net, JavaScript, PHP, Android [CPT]
  • Java Development – Trained in Java, JavaScript [CPT & JHB]
  • Software Development (postgrad) – Trained Post Graduates with Java, JavaScript, HTML, CSS, PHP and MY SQL Databases [CPT]
  • CISCO Security –Trained and certified as a Cisco Network Security Associate [JHB]
  • ICT Infrastructure – Trained in IT Essentials, Routing and Switching, Linux Fundamentals, CCNA [CPT]

Company Hosts:

As a host, you will help cement the youth of South Africa’s futures in the business world.

Hosts will accommodate the trainees in their respective offices with access to a computer and involve them in work that allows them to grow their technical experience.

Hosts are required to pay a stipend to support their interns with transport and living costs.

Company Benefit:

Interns can support your teams with existing or new projects with data capture, database management, analysis, software testing, software development to administration, help-desk management. What’s important is that they are exposed to technical projects, team-work and ways of working that build their confidence and knowledge.

Join CiTi in supporting young South Africans to positively shape their future:

As a company partner to CiTi, allow these ambitious, motivated interns to contribute to your teams, and projects, where you need it most.

Help support South Africa’s youth to change their future by hiring talented tech interns for your team.

To register your company’s interest in interviewing CapaCiTi interns or grads, please visit http://www.citi.org.za or email hire@capaciti.org.za. Please indicate whether you are in Johannesburg or Cape Town, and the focus of your business.

Source It News Africa

SA: Work experience shouldn’t be required for youth employment – Ramaphosa

By African News Agency

Ramaphosa also called the ANC Youth League a ‘defensive shield’ for the governing party, adding they must be ‘storm troopers for non-racialism and non-sexism’.

President Cyril Ramaphosa told a crowd of African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) members today that work experience should not be a requirement for young people when applying for employment.

“Experience must not be a requirement that is used for young people to get jobs. I use the argument, which is quite logical, if we say you must have experience, where are you going to get that experience?” said Ramaphosa.

He said he would “do away with” the notion that experience was essential in the public sector and would push the private sector to follow suit.

Ramaphosa was speaking in Durban at a youth rally in honour of Peter Mokaba, who was the first youth league president after the unbanning of the ANC. Mokaba would have celebrated his 60th birthday on January 7, had he lived. He died in 2002 when he was 43 years old.

Mokaba gained international notoriety for using the slogan “kill the boer, kill the farmer” and for denying the existence of HIV.

He was appointed a deputy minister of environmental affairs and tourism by former president Nelson Mandela and was thrice voted a member of the ANC’s national executive committee. He is widely regarded as a national hero amongst many of the country’s youth for his militant stance against apartheid, for which he was imprisoned.

Ramaphosa said Mokaba embodied the values that the youth should espouse. Mokaba was a hero of his generation because he “immersed himself heart and soul into the struggle for the creation of a non-racial, non-sexist, democratic and prosperous South Africa”.

Mokaba should also be used as a mirror for the youth, said Ramaphosa, as he was not scared to raise difficult questions about the direction in which the ANC and youth league were moving.

Ramaphosa said that while the youth league was autonomous, it was still part of the mother body and should be radical in generating new ideas.

“It must be militant in terms of agitating for those ideas and must always remain true to the principles of the ANC. You as the youth league must have the courage to defend the principles of the ANC at all times and advance its principles even when the environment seems hostile,” he said.

Ramaphosa called the youth league a “defensive shield” for the governing party.

“The youth league should be the storm troopers for non-racialism and non-sexism as we continue with the building of a national democratic society.”

He lauded the league for “raising the land question early on” and for fighting for free education.

“The government has had to follow behind you and say ‘yes, we will find the means’”, said Ramaphosa, adding that it had been difficult to source the money to fund free education for those from poor families.

He also commended the league for fighting for economic emancipation and said that 20 percent of those nominated onto party lists for the upcoming national election were youth.

“We have made sure young people will have 20 percent representation in parliament and legislature. It’s a start and it will keep rising,” he said.

Source ANA