SA: A South African Case Study – How to Support Young Job Hunters


ANALYSIS

By Lauren Graham, University of Johannesburg and Leila Patel
Young South Africans spend on average R938 (US$85) a month looking for work. This astronomical cost includes transport at R558 ($41) and an additional R380 ($28) for internet access, printing, application fees, agent’s fees and even money for bribes.


The picture is even more alarming when you consider the unemployment statistics. Over the last decade unemployment in South Africa has increased from 21.5% to 27.2%.

But perhaps most concerning is that it’s especially high for South Africa’s almost 10 million young people between the ages of 15 and 24. For this group unemployment sits at 50%. Not only do young people struggle to find work but the process of getting a job in South Africa is expensive.

The data on the cost of looking for work has been collected by the Siyakha Youth Assets for Employability Study. The ongoing study launched in 2013 to assess whether government programmes designed to help young people is actually making a difference in their efforts to find work.

The programmes offer some form of skills training – usually a combination of technical and general workplace skills, along with some advice and support on finding work. The study is looking at whether youth employability programmes – improve employment for youth and what elements help them in their job search.

The study participants were predominantly African, women and from poor backgrounds. The average age of the participants when they completed their training was 23.5 years. Three-quarters of the sample were between 18 and 25 years of age. This demographic is the most affected by unemployment.

The reasons most often given for youth unemployment are limited skills, lack of work experience, and high wage expectations. But our findings show that over half of the sample had prior work experience and did not report unrealistic wage expectations, suggesting there were other factors keeping young people locked out of the labour market.

We conclude that one reason contributing to the continued inability of young people to break into the jobs market is the cost of seeking a job.

The survey

The survey has involved a sample of 1 986 young people who participated in eight of these programmes at 48 training sites across the country. The vast majority of the participants were young – with an average age of 23 – black (94,4%) and unemployed (78%).

A key reason that those surveyed gave for not looking for work is the cost of doing so.

The reason for this is that apartheid era spatial planning, in which townships were established far away from economic hubs, continues to affect the ability of people to look for work in a cost effective way.

Two-thirds of the participants in the study live in townships often located on the periphery of urban areas. This means they have to travel long distances to the urban economic hubs to access job opportunities.

The remaining third were based in far flung rural areas, meaning they needed to travel even further than their urban counterparts in search of jobs.

In addition to the burden of travel costs, the study found that over half (51%) of young people live in households that are classified as severely food insecure. This meant that they, or another member of the household, had gone without food to eat more than once in the 30 days that preceded the baseline study.

This means that households had to make difficult decisions between funding the costs of seeking work and affording basic necessities.

The findings

Our research found that close to two-thirds (61.6%) of participants relied on family members to fund their costs of searching for work, which puts a huge strain on their personal relationships and often made these young people feel like a burden.

Blessing, a young mom of two with a diploma in tourism management said:

[I experience] financial challenges in the case of going to drop my CV, so I have been asking my mum and even my husband, to drop my CV on my behalf on their way to work to save on costs.

Nevertheless, 15% of youth in the study showed real initiative and commitment to finding work. They funded the costs from their own savings. A smaller number (6.2%) reported using the stipends they received from the various programmes helping youths find employment.

The study found that 87.2% of those interviewed used the internet to look for work, but there was still a reliance on newspaper adverts, which often required applicants to submit physical applications.

The research found that 83% of young people spent money on printing their CVs, and that one of their biggest expenses was for mobile data. The youth employment programmes helped in alleviating some of the financial costs.

Support for work seekers is crucial, especially if South Africa is going to address the needs of the millions of young people that remain unemployed. Failure to provide this support means that young people’s potential will not be realised and significant human capital will be lost to society.

Leilanie Williams, a researcher at the University of Johannesburg, contributed to the research and this article.


Source The Conversation


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Report: 36 Million Poverty Hit Children In Ethiopia

An estimated 36 million of a total population of 41 million children under the age of 18 in Ethiopia are multi-dimensionally poor, says a new report by a government agency and the UN agency for UN children.
The report indicated that the children are deprived of basic goods and services in at least three dimensions. The report studied child poverty in nine dimensions – development/stunting, nutrition, health, water, sanitation, and housing. Other dimensions included education, health related knowledge, and information and participation, according to the study conducted by the Central Statistics Agency and UNICEF.

The study, “Multi-dimensional Child Deprivation in Ethiopia – First National Estimates,” finds that 88 per cent of children in Ethiopia under the age of 18 (36 million) lack access to basic services in at least three basic dimensions of the nine studied, with lack of access to housing and sanitation being the most acute.

Given their large population sizes, Oromia, Amhara, and Southern regions are the largest contributors to multi-dimensional child deprivation in Ethiopia.

These three regions jointly account for 34 of the 36 million deprived children in Ethiopia, with Oromia having the highest number at 16.7 million, SNNPR at 8.8 million, and Amhara at 8.5 million. Regions with the lowest number of poor children are Harar at 90,000, Dire Dawa at 156,000, and Gambella at 170,000.

“We need to frequently measure the rates of child poverty as part of the general poverty measures and use different approaches for measuring poverty. This requires all stakeholders from government, international development partners and academic institutions to work together to measure, design policies and programmes to reduce child poverty in Ethiopia,’’ said Mr Biratu Yigezu, Director General of Central Statistics Agency.

The report adapted the global Multi-Dimensional Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) methodology and used information available from national data sets such as the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys of 2011 and 2016. MODA has been widely used by 32 countries in Africa to analyze child well-being.

The methodology defines multi-dimensional child poverty as non-fulfilment of basic rights contained in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and concludes that a child is poor if he or she is deprived in three to six age-specific dimensions.

The report’s findings have been validated through an extensive consultative process involving the Ministry of Women, Children and Youth, National Planning Commission, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs together with the Economic Policy Research Institute, among others.

“Children in Ethiopia are more likely to experience poverty than adults, with distressing and lifelong effects which cannot easily be reversed,” said Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative in Ethiopia.

“Ethiopia’s future economic prosperity and social development, and its aspirations for middle income status, depend heavily on continued investments in children’s physical, cognitive and social development.”

The study reveals that there are large geographical inequalities: 94 per cent children in rural areas are multi-dimensionally deprived compared to 42 per cent of children in urban areas.

Across Ethiopia’s regions, rates of child poverty range from 18 per cent in Addis Ababa to 91 per cent in Afar, Amhara, and SNNPR. Poverty rates are equally high in Oromia and Somali (90 per cent each) and Benishangul-Gumuz (89 per cent).

Additional key findings from the report indicate:

High disparities across areas and regions of residence in terms of average number deprivations in basic rights or services.

For example, the differences in deprivation intensity (average number of deprivations in basic rights and services that each child is experiencing) between rural and urban areas are significant; multi-dimensionally deprived children residing in rural areas experienced 4.5 deprivations in accessing basic rights and needs on average compared to 3.2 among their peers in urban areas;

Although there has been progress in reducing child deprivation, much more remains to be done. The percentage of children deprived in three to six dimensions decreased from 90 per cent to 88 per cent between 2011 and 2016 and the average number of deprivations that each child is experiencing decreased from 4.7 to 4.5 dimensions during the same period.

Most children in Ethiopia face multiple and overlapping deprivations. Ninety-five per cent of children in Ethiopia are deprived of two to six basic needs and services, while only one per cent have access to all services. Deprivation overlaps between dimensions are very high in rural areas and among children in the poorest wealth quintiles.

The report makes the following recommendations:

  • Speed up investments to reduce child poverty by four per cent each year for the next decade if Ethiopia is to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal on poverty reduction;
  • Accelerate investments in social sectors prioritizing child-sensitive budgeting at the national and regional levels to enhance equality and equity; and
  • Improve collaboration among different social sectors to ensure that the multiple needs of children are met.

Source Newbusinessethiopia


Report: About 36m children in Ethiopia multi-dimensionally poor


By APA News


An estimated 36 million of a total population of 41 million children under the age of 18 in Ethiopia are multi-dimensionally poor, meaning they are deprived of basic goods and services in at least three dimensions, says a new report released Friday by the Central Statistical Agency and UNICEF.Titled “Multi-dimensional Child Deprivation in Ethiopia – First National Estimates,” the report studied child poverty in nine dimensions – development/stunting, nutrition, health, water, sanitation, and housing. Other dimensions included education, health related knowledge, and information and participation.

”We need to frequently measure the rates of child poverty as part of the general poverty measures and use different approaches for measuring poverty. This requires all stakeholders from government, international development partners and academic institutions to work together to measure, design policies and programes to reduce child poverty in Ethiopia,” said Mr Biratu Yigezu, Director General of Central Statistical Agency.

The report adapted the global Multi-Dimensional Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) methodology and used information available from national data sets such as the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys of 2011 and 2016. MODA has been widely used by 32 countries in Africa to analyze child well-being. The methodology defines multi-dimensional child poverty as non-fulfilment of basic rights contained in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and concludes that a child is poor if he or she is deprived in three to six age-specific dimensions. The report’s findings have been validated through an extensive consultative process involving the Ministry of Women, Children and Youth, National Planning Commission, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs together with the Economic Policy Research Institute, among others.

“Children in Ethiopia are more likely to experience poverty than adults, with distressing and lifelong effects which cannot easily be reversed,” said Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative in Ethiopia. “Ethiopia’s future economic prosperity and social development, and its aspirations for middle income status, depend heavily on continued investments in children’s physical, cognitive and social development.”

The study finds that 88 per cent of children in Ethiopia under the age of 18 (36 million) lack access to basic services in at least three basic dimensions of the nine studied, with lack of access to housing and sanitation being the most acute. The study reveals that there are large geographical inequalities: 94 per cent children in rural areas are multi-dimensionally deprived compared to 42 per cent of children in urban areas. Across Ethiopia’s regions, rates of child poverty range from 18 per cent in Addis Ababa to 91 per cent in Afar, Amhara, and SNNPR. Poverty rates are equally high in Oromia and Somali (90 per cent each) and Benishangul-Gumuz (89 per cent).


Source journal du cameroun


Education Provides Children With Hope, Structure And Tangible Opportunities

By Editor

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research.

Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves.

Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational.

A right to education has been recognized by some governments and the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age.

Education provides children with hope, structure and tangible opportunities for a better future. Every child has the right to an education.

According to Sharmila Rawat, “Education is the gateway to success. Success can be achieved when people have knowledge, skills and attitude. All these things can be gained only with the help of education. I believe that education is the only way which shows us many ways to lead and utilize our life properly. No person in the world with education is neglected.

Education helps us to explore our own thoughts and ideas and makes it able to express it in different forms. So for me education is like a medium through which I can interact with different people and share our ideas. It is also the door to our destiny.” Sharmila said.

Studies have show children benefit more from good education.

BENEFITS OF EDUCATION TO A CHILD

1. Education helps to prepare a child for the future.

2. Education will help gives a child experience and confidence he/she needs to begin the real world adventure on their own.

3. Education will help build a child’s common sense.

4. Education will help a child to decide what he/she want to become in life.

5. Education helps a child to listen to others and to communicate with their own ideas.

6. Education helps a child to learn in choosing friends, to share and take turns, and to co-operate.

Studies have shown that education helps to increase the likelihood of children in becoming responsible young adults.

Thanks For Reading

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African nations asked to invest in youth career path

By Tosin Adepoju

A call has gone to African governments to establish a productive and enduring youth culture through huge investments in the youths’ career charting as this is the greatest challenge of the 21st Century graduates. The call was made by Dr. Innocent Ezeugonwa, a lecturer of Mass Communication and Public Analyst, while delivering the fourth convocation lecture of the Esep-Le-Berger University, Cotonou, Benin Republic, which took place at St Charbel Hall of the institution. More than 400 graduating students received their scrolls for award of First Degree and certificates at the ceremony. The guest lecturer, however, advocated that government should support the youths in order for them to be productive and relevant in today’s world job market, challenging the government to provide an enabling environment for the youths to thrive. Dignitaries present at the event include the Founder/ Proprietor of the institution, Germain Galonon; the Registrar, Charles Ijishakin; the Academic Director, Gbenga Akande; Deans of Faculties and Heads of Departments, among others.

“If we want the best from our youths, we should invest in their career charting. Investing in career is prosperity for citizens and windfall for government,” Ezeugonwa said. According to him, given the state of Nigeria’s economy, “fixing the problem of power will provide job for millions of people since most of the businesses in the world depend largely on reliable and regular power supply. In his lecture, he, therefore, urged the government to establish research institute for national and youth development, saying this had become imperative to engage youths, who are today wasting their talents due to of lack of necessary encouragement and enabling environment.

“There should be foundries to encourage research, inventions and talent development as because studies have shown that with enabling environment, the youths could recreate their destiny,” he added, even as he reiterated the support for young entrepreneurs in terms of skill development and proper networking for them to be employable, especially sports.

This was as Ezeugonwa hinted that “youths are easily empowered through sports and that the energy they deploy to crime and other unprofitable activities should be harnessed for sporting activities and other positive engagements.” According to him, Nigeria has not been active or developed the people’s swimming potential, while studies have revealed that Ijaw people are capable of swimming very well as they can stay underwater for several minutes without drowning.

Therefore, the don challenged the government on the urgent need to create a national swimming centre for the training of youths. Ezeugonwa, however, charged the students to support the government by being productive and relevant to the development of the society, saying by doing this the government would be ready to do its best to invest more on them.

He stressed: “This is because the growth of the nation lies on the youths and therefore they should explore their strengths and weaknesses to know what they can do better in order to redirect government energy and focus towards it. According to the public analyst, career aspiration and choice of courses, standard education, reading culture, learning habit are the keys to achieving these goals. The high point of the ceremony was the presentation of prizes to graduating students with outstanding academic performance across all the departments.

Source: New Telegraph

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African nations asked to invest in youth career path

By Tosin Adepoju

A call has gone to African governments to establish a productive and enduring youth culture through huge investments in the youths’ career charting as this is the greatest challenge of the 21st Century graduates. The call was made by Dr. Innocent Ezeugonwa, a lecturer of Mass Communication and Public Analyst, while delivering the fourth convocation lecture of the Esep-Le-Berger University, Cotonou, Benin Republic, which took place at St Charbel Hall of the institution. More than 400 graduating students received their scrolls for award of First Degree and certificates at the ceremony. The guest lecturer, however, advocated that government should support the youths in order for them to be productive and relevant in today’s world job market, challenging the government to provide an enabling environment for the youths to thrive. Dignitaries present at the event include the Founder/ Proprietor of the institution, Germain Galonon; the Registrar, Charles Ijishakin; the Academic Director, Gbenga Akande; Deans of Faculties and Heads of Departments, among others.

“If we want the best from our youths, we should invest in their career charting. Investing in career is prosperity for citizens and windfall for government,” Ezeugonwa said. According to him, given the state of Nigeria’s economy, “fixing the problem of power will provide job for millions of people since most of the businesses in the world depend largely on reliable and regular power supply. In his lecture, he, therefore, urged the government to establish research institute for national and youth development, saying this had become imperative to engage youths, who are today wasting their talents due to of lack of necessary encouragement and enabling environment.

“There should be foundries to encourage research, inventions and talent development as because studies have shown that with enabling environment, the youths could recreate their destiny,” he added, even as he reiterated the support for young entrepreneurs in terms of skill development and proper networking for them to be employable, especially sports.

This was as Ezeugonwa hinted that “youths are easily empowered through sports and that the energy they deploy to crime and other unprofitable activities should be harnessed for sporting activities and other positive engagements.” According to him, Nigeria has not been active or developed the people’s swimming potential, while studies have revealed that Ijaw people are capable of swimming very well as they can stay underwater for several minutes without drowning.

Therefore, the don challenged the government on the urgent need to create a national swimming centre for the training of youths. Ezeugonwa, however, charged the students to support the government by being productive and relevant to the development of the society, saying by doing this the government would be ready to do its best to invest more on them.

He stressed: “This is because the growth of the nation lies on the youths and therefore they should explore their strengths and weaknesses to know what they can do better in order to redirect government energy and focus towards it. According to the public analyst, career aspiration and choice of courses, standard education, reading culture, learning habit are the keys to achieving these goals. The high point of the ceremony was the presentation of prizes to graduating students with outstanding academic performance across all the departments.

Source: New Telegraph

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