Job-hunting can exacerbate poverty for unemployed SA youth, study finds


The cost of job-hunting is one of the reasons many young people remain unemployed in South Africa.


Unemployment in the country has increased from 21.5% to 27.2% over the last decade.

Researcher Lauren Graham is part of a team that’s collecting data for an ongoing study that explores the cost of looking for work.

The Siyakha Youth Assets for Employability Study assess whether government programmes are effectively helping young people in their efforts to find employment.

Young people are engaged in fairly intensive job search activities – which we would expect given the high rates of unemployment – but they are spending exorbitant amounts on the cost of work-seeking.

— Lauren Graham, Director at Centre for Social Development In Africa – University Of Johannesburg
The study has found that young South Africans spend an average of R938 a month looking for work, Graham explains.

Transport, internet access, printing, application fees and agent’s fees are some of the expenses jobseekers face.

Graham argues that job-hunting has become a process that exacerbates poverty for low-income households.

They come from poor households, where the household income is about R2500 a month. The cost of work-seeking is a significant chunk of household income.

— Lauren Graham, Director at Centre for Social Development In Africa – University Of Johannesburg
We argue that this makes it a poverty exacerbating process. Households have to make difficult decisions and it becomes complex for young people.

— Lauren Graham, Director at Centre for Social Development In Africa – University Of Johannesburg
The study recommends that the government should invest more in labour centres and other support services to lessen the burden on young people and help them improve their prospects of finding work.


Source Cape Talk


Report: 36 Million Poverty Hit Children In Ethiopia

An estimated 36 million of a total population of 41 million children under the age of 18 in Ethiopia are multi-dimensionally poor, says a new report by a government agency and the UN agency for UN children.
The report indicated that the children are deprived of basic goods and services in at least three dimensions. The report studied child poverty in nine dimensions – development/stunting, nutrition, health, water, sanitation, and housing. Other dimensions included education, health related knowledge, and information and participation, according to the study conducted by the Central Statistics Agency and UNICEF.

The study, “Multi-dimensional Child Deprivation in Ethiopia – First National Estimates,” finds that 88 per cent of children in Ethiopia under the age of 18 (36 million) lack access to basic services in at least three basic dimensions of the nine studied, with lack of access to housing and sanitation being the most acute.

Given their large population sizes, Oromia, Amhara, and Southern regions are the largest contributors to multi-dimensional child deprivation in Ethiopia.

These three regions jointly account for 34 of the 36 million deprived children in Ethiopia, with Oromia having the highest number at 16.7 million, SNNPR at 8.8 million, and Amhara at 8.5 million. Regions with the lowest number of poor children are Harar at 90,000, Dire Dawa at 156,000, and Gambella at 170,000.

“We need to frequently measure the rates of child poverty as part of the general poverty measures and use different approaches for measuring poverty. This requires all stakeholders from government, international development partners and academic institutions to work together to measure, design policies and programmes to reduce child poverty in Ethiopia,’’ said Mr Biratu Yigezu, Director General of Central Statistics Agency.

The report adapted the global Multi-Dimensional Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) methodology and used information available from national data sets such as the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys of 2011 and 2016. MODA has been widely used by 32 countries in Africa to analyze child well-being.

The methodology defines multi-dimensional child poverty as non-fulfilment of basic rights contained in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and concludes that a child is poor if he or she is deprived in three to six age-specific dimensions.

The report’s findings have been validated through an extensive consultative process involving the Ministry of Women, Children and Youth, National Planning Commission, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs together with the Economic Policy Research Institute, among others.

“Children in Ethiopia are more likely to experience poverty than adults, with distressing and lifelong effects which cannot easily be reversed,” said Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative in Ethiopia.

“Ethiopia’s future economic prosperity and social development, and its aspirations for middle income status, depend heavily on continued investments in children’s physical, cognitive and social development.”

The study reveals that there are large geographical inequalities: 94 per cent children in rural areas are multi-dimensionally deprived compared to 42 per cent of children in urban areas.

Across Ethiopia’s regions, rates of child poverty range from 18 per cent in Addis Ababa to 91 per cent in Afar, Amhara, and SNNPR. Poverty rates are equally high in Oromia and Somali (90 per cent each) and Benishangul-Gumuz (89 per cent).

Additional key findings from the report indicate:

High disparities across areas and regions of residence in terms of average number deprivations in basic rights or services.

For example, the differences in deprivation intensity (average number of deprivations in basic rights and services that each child is experiencing) between rural and urban areas are significant; multi-dimensionally deprived children residing in rural areas experienced 4.5 deprivations in accessing basic rights and needs on average compared to 3.2 among their peers in urban areas;

Although there has been progress in reducing child deprivation, much more remains to be done. The percentage of children deprived in three to six dimensions decreased from 90 per cent to 88 per cent between 2011 and 2016 and the average number of deprivations that each child is experiencing decreased from 4.7 to 4.5 dimensions during the same period.

Most children in Ethiopia face multiple and overlapping deprivations. Ninety-five per cent of children in Ethiopia are deprived of two to six basic needs and services, while only one per cent have access to all services. Deprivation overlaps between dimensions are very high in rural areas and among children in the poorest wealth quintiles.

The report makes the following recommendations:

  • Speed up investments to reduce child poverty by four per cent each year for the next decade if Ethiopia is to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal on poverty reduction;
  • Accelerate investments in social sectors prioritizing child-sensitive budgeting at the national and regional levels to enhance equality and equity; and
  • Improve collaboration among different social sectors to ensure that the multiple needs of children are met.

Source Newbusinessethiopia


Report: About 36m children in Ethiopia multi-dimensionally poor


By APA News


An estimated 36 million of a total population of 41 million children under the age of 18 in Ethiopia are multi-dimensionally poor, meaning they are deprived of basic goods and services in at least three dimensions, says a new report released Friday by the Central Statistical Agency and UNICEF.Titled “Multi-dimensional Child Deprivation in Ethiopia – First National Estimates,” the report studied child poverty in nine dimensions – development/stunting, nutrition, health, water, sanitation, and housing. Other dimensions included education, health related knowledge, and information and participation.

”We need to frequently measure the rates of child poverty as part of the general poverty measures and use different approaches for measuring poverty. This requires all stakeholders from government, international development partners and academic institutions to work together to measure, design policies and programes to reduce child poverty in Ethiopia,” said Mr Biratu Yigezu, Director General of Central Statistical Agency.

The report adapted the global Multi-Dimensional Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) methodology and used information available from national data sets such as the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys of 2011 and 2016. MODA has been widely used by 32 countries in Africa to analyze child well-being. The methodology defines multi-dimensional child poverty as non-fulfilment of basic rights contained in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and concludes that a child is poor if he or she is deprived in three to six age-specific dimensions. The report’s findings have been validated through an extensive consultative process involving the Ministry of Women, Children and Youth, National Planning Commission, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs together with the Economic Policy Research Institute, among others.

“Children in Ethiopia are more likely to experience poverty than adults, with distressing and lifelong effects which cannot easily be reversed,” said Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative in Ethiopia. “Ethiopia’s future economic prosperity and social development, and its aspirations for middle income status, depend heavily on continued investments in children’s physical, cognitive and social development.”

The study finds that 88 per cent of children in Ethiopia under the age of 18 (36 million) lack access to basic services in at least three basic dimensions of the nine studied, with lack of access to housing and sanitation being the most acute. The study reveals that there are large geographical inequalities: 94 per cent children in rural areas are multi-dimensionally deprived compared to 42 per cent of children in urban areas. Across Ethiopia’s regions, rates of child poverty range from 18 per cent in Addis Ababa to 91 per cent in Afar, Amhara, and SNNPR. Poverty rates are equally high in Oromia and Somali (90 per cent each) and Benishangul-Gumuz (89 per cent).


Source journal du cameroun


Morocco’s Unemployment Falls Slightly, Youth Unemployment at 27.5%

BY MOROCCO WORLD NEWS

According to a note by the High Commission for Planning (HCP), 122,000 jobs were created: 118,000 in urban areas and 4,000 in rural areas.

The service sector and “industry including traditional industry” generated 98,000 jobs and 19,000 jobs, respectively.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing generated 9,000 jobs, while construction and public works lost 4,000 jobs.

HCP added that, during the same period, there were just over 1 million unemployed people, down by 64,000 people at the national level since the same period last year.

The unemployment rate in urban areas fell from 14.9 percent to 14.3 percent. In rural areas it fell from 4.6 percent to 3.9 percent.

However, the unemployment rate remains relatively high among youth aged 15-24 (27.5 percent). The rate among women and those with degrees is 13.8 percent and 17.1 percent, respectively.

The unemployment rate of those with a vocational training certificate is 23.9 percent: 36.5 percent for women and 19.3 percent for men.

HCP found that approximately 57 percent of unemployed people have never worked before, and 67.7 percent have been unemployed for a year or more.

Approximately 26.8 percent are unemployed because they were fired or their employer’s activity was suspended.

SOURCE: MOROCCO WORLD NEWS

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How can young people secure a better future for Africa?

By Gerald Chirinda

With 70% of Africa’s population under the age of 30, we as a continent are presented with a great opportunity and, possibly, a great challenge. Young Africans today are taking actions that not only have an immediate impact, but will also determine the future of the continent for decades to come.

Never has there been such weighty responsibility on the shoulders of young people. Never has there been the influence in the hands of young people like the influence they carry now. But for Africa to reap the dividends she has longed for, it is up to our generation to make sure that influence is channelled correctly and directed towards relevant issues that affect not only ourselves, but generations after us. This can only be achieved if we come together as young people and begin to address the challenges before us as a continent.

The role of African youth is drastically changing, but so are some of the challenges we face, such as employability and entrepreneurship opportunities. The strength of any society is within the strength and resolve of its youth – what investment are young people making in our continent today?

In the past 6 months, I’ve listened to the argument stating that we have spent more time focused on what’s happening in other continents, like the US presidency, and less on local issues. I have had the privilege of being invited to speak at different platforms across Africa and have met and engaged with fellow young people who know less about my country Zimbabwe but more of what’s happening in the US and in Europe, and these discussions brought us to a conclusion that as a continent we have not done a good job in telling our own stories, both good and bad, affecting our people. (Could you tell us a bit about your background here – in what capacity are you listening to these arguments?) There are important matters such as the thousands of lives of fellow Africans lost at sea when trying to leave the continent for greener pastures, youth unemployment, gross mismanagement of government institutions and resources, xenophobia among our own people and the general restlessness and frustrations of young African people.

There’s no problem with us engaging in discourse at a global level, but I feel it is important for us to exert more of our time and energy on issues that affect our continent and our people. I believe if we, as youth, don’t take ownership and responsibility for our problems and challenges, we run the risk of allowing other nations, organizations and institutions to do so on their terms. My question to fellow young Africans is are we creating a future in which generations after us can be confident?

A lot has been said about Africa and its rise in the past few years. For this to be true, I believe it requires its people to also rise and drive the agenda, not wait for instruction or direction from other nations. If this doesn’t happen, Africa may still rise, but only for those with an agenda for the continent. This then begs me the question of fellow young Africans: what is our agenda, and what are we doing to shape that agenda?

With regard to employability, according to the African Development Bank report, by 2050 Africa will be home to 38 of the 40 youngest countries in the world, with median populations under 25 years of age. This will result in an estimated 10-12 millionnew people joining the labour force each year. These statistics clearly indicate that a considerable amount of investment must go into human development to unlock a demographic dividend. What innovative policies and programmes do we, as young people, want to make sure that this happens and that this growth will not result in a demographic time bomb for Africa?

With the Fourth Industrial Revolution upon us and the rate at which technology is advancing it is critical that we have a sufficiently educated and skilled workforce to be able to drive Africa in this direction. There is currently a mismatch between industry demands and the education curriculum. Education institutions need to update their curricula to align with the direction in which the world and Africa are going. If we ignore this, our young people will have irrelevant qualifications that the continent will be unable to benefit from.

It is worrying to note the rate at which young educated Africans are leaving to seek more opportunities abroad. The grass is not always greener on the other side, however, as leaders of other nations are also facing domestic challenges and therefore not prioritizing immigrants. If our educational institutions can include entrepreneurship as a mandatory subject at all levels of education, more young people will be better equipped to create jobs and address the issue of high unemployment.

I am a strong advocate for local solutions to local challenges, but for this to happen, we need to encourage and cultivate innovation among our youth. It is encouraging to note that there are pockets of this already taking place across the continent, where we can see uptake and use of locally-designed technology. More of this needs to happen across the board, covering the different sectors of our economies, as Africa still lags behind the rest of the world when it comes to introducing disruptive technology. Human development is about creating opportunities and building a person’s ability to innovate and be entrepreneurial. Significant investment needs to go towards this.

With the growth of the continent, it only makes sense for us to industrialize in order to be less reliant on importing products for consumption from outside the continent. According to the African Economic Outlook 2017 report, Africa’s growing population is expected to generate a rise in consumer spending from $680 billion in 2008 to $2.2 trillion in 2030. This increased spending has the potential to lead to greater prosperity.

The growth in Africa’s population presents a huge opportunity for entrepreneurial innovations and ideas to be implemented. It does, however, require strong political will to enable the right environment to be created to encourage these ideas and for entrepreneurs to be supported in their different stages of growth, from start-up, early stage and growth stage right through to becoming large corporations.

As you may notice, this article asks more questions than it provides solutions. The best way for us to answer these is if we begin to engage in conversations and dialogue amongst ourselves as young Africans and see what solutions we can come up with for a better Africa. We spend time complaining about poor leadership in our countries, but my final question is: are we ourselves prepared to succeed the generation that precedes us?

Let us intentionally create a culture that encourages the building and shaping of the Africa that we want. The change we want begins with us coming together and developing our own culture and value system for thinking, planning, implementation, accountability, integrity and collaboration. It is up to us as young Africans to shape the narrative of our continent. Let us begin to do so, in every sphere of society.

Source: World Economic Forum

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NYLC: Youths are solutions to Nigeria’s problems

By Victoria Onehi

Youths have been charged to see themselves as solution to Nigeria’s problems. This charge was given by Senator Dino Melaye while making remarks at the National Youth Leadership Conference, held in Abuja on Tuesday.

Melaye while speaking on the theme of the conference ‘2019 and Beyond: Leaders Nigeria Needs’ said the future of the country was in the hand of the youths. “As youths of this country, you need to grab it, you need to take charge and you need to overcome fear.” he said.

In her speech, the special guest of Honour and former Minister of Women Development, Hajiya Zainab Maina said the youths were leaders for today and tomorrow.

“Nigeria Youths like their counterparts in other countries if given the opportunity are very dynamic, very versatile, intelligent, dedicated. The empowerment and contribution of the youths towards nation building cannot be ignored as it is the essential element for sustainable development,” she said.

Chairperson of the National Youth Leadership Conference (NYLC) Miss Chimdi Neliaku, said the conference is aimed at raising the consciousness of young people to know qualities they should look out for in the leaders they should vote for in 2019 and beyond.

Source: Daily Trust

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Namibia: Young man thrives in the nail-do industry

BY NUUSITA ASHIPALA

SHIPEPE – Driven by the passion to fight poverty and create an income for himself, 27-year-old Angolan-born Sergio Manuela da Silva has breached the stereotypical view that the nail-do is a women’s job and now successfully runs a door-to-door beauty parlour in the northern towns.

Formally trained at a tender age of 15 in his home town Luanda, Da Silva also accrued skills from his mother, who is also in the trade.

He has been running a beauty parlour with his mother in his native Angola before coming to Namibia to visit a relative.

Given the financial circumstances in his home country, Da Silva said he saw an opportunity to present Namibians a chance to do their nails and hair from the comfort of their homes. Although the start was not plain sailing, he was able to create a clientele base in a short time and now boasts a good number of customers in Ondangwa, Ongwediva and Oshakati.

“I am flexible, I can go anywhere as long as there are enough customers to cover the costs,” Da Silva related.
When busy with a customer, Da Silva barely makes conversation and concentrates fully on what he is doing – which he does with so much passion.

Asked why he opted for the beauty industry instead of, for example, fixing cars as many a teenage boy would aspire to become, Da Silva said he learned at a young age that women always had money lying around to spend on their hair and nails.

“Women may not have money for other things but they always have money to beautify themselves,” he explained. Although the industry is predominantly female, Da Silva said being male still works in his favour because women hold the perception that men are the best in the industry.

For Da Silva, his passion stretches beyond doing nails.
In addition he does hair, eyelashes and make-up. With the evolving world, where there is talent, da Silva said one should always explore other possible opportunities that are in demand.

Da Silva advised fellow youths to venture into businesses or look for jobs instead of waiting for the government to provide for them.

“When you are above 18, you can no longer expect your parents to take care of u. We should look for jobs and take care of our parents,” da Silva said.

Source: New Era

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Act now or a billion young Africans will be undone by 2050 – Mandela widow

By Karen McVeigh

Nelson Mandela’s widow has warned Africa could become the continent of a billion “angry, underfed, under-educated and under-employed” young people by 2050, unless African governments act to invest in their children.

In advance of the publication of a major report on child rights across Africa, Graça Machel has expressed concern that a “toxic combination” of undernutrition, poor education and the world’s fastest-growing youth populations pose a threat to the continent’s future.

“Even though our youth have the potential to transform Africa, if neglected, they could exacerbate poverty and inequality while threatening peace, security and prosperity,” said Machel, chair of the international board of trustees of the African Child Policy Forum (ACPF), which will publish the 2018 Africa Report on Child Wellness on Friday.

The report, which ranks 52 nations on how they are meeting child rights under international conventions, warns that massive investment is needed to prevent a billion children and young people from becoming undernourished, semi-illiterate or illiterate, and jobless or underemployed by 2050. Africa’s child and youth population is predicted to reach 750 million by 2030, and one billion by the middle of the century – representing approximately 40% of the global child and youth population.

The ACPF report, which analysed progress on the “child-friendliness” index of African governments over the past decade, highlighted “remarkable improvements” in the survival and overall wellbeing of African children. These included an almost 50% reduction in child mortality over 15 years and increased access to primary education. But the study expressed concern that child malnutrition and substandard education in many counties was creating a “crisis” in human development for the future.

“Africa is on the verge of a serious human development crisis, which carries grave consequences for the social and economic wellbeing of its people and for the future of the continent,” said the report’s authors.

“There are many reasons for concern,” said Dr Assefa Bequele, the ACPF’s executive director. “Undernutrition remains a serious and persistent problem. It is the single biggest challenge for Africa’s children. Stunting remains unacceptably high, at 30.4%. Up to half of all deaths in under-fives are associated with undernutrition. And while African children may attend school in large numbers, they are not learning. Two in every five children leave primary school without learning how to read, write or do simple arithmetic.”

The report named the 11 most child-friendly governments as Mauritius, Algeria, Tunisia, South Africa, Cabo Verde, Egypt, Namibia, Seychelles, Swaziland, Morocco and Lesotho.

South Sudan, Central African Republic, Chad, Cameroon, Zambia, Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea and Eritrea were rated the least child-friendly countries.

Rankings are based on indicators including nutrition, education, budgets and social protection.

Spending on education across Africa has stagnated at an average of 4% of GDP over the past two decades, the study found. More than half of all girls do not attend secondary school. Zambia and Central African Republic allocated just 1% of GDP to education, while Lesotho and Botswana spent more than 10%.

Child undernutrition cost Ethiopia 16.5% of its GDP – and 5.6% in Uganda – said the report.

The study found that while many countries have laws, policies and institutions governing child rights, many laws are discriminatory and inconsistent with international standards. The continuing incidence of child labour, child marriage and violence against children showed a wide gap between rhetoric and action, as well as poor enforcement of laws.

For instance, while 36 out of 52 countries set the marriageable age at 18 or above for both sexes, three in 10 African children are married before the age of 18. In Sudan, girls as young as 10 are allowed to marry.

The report’s authors called for urgent action to tackle undernutrition and poor education, as well as more job creation and greater economic opportunities for young people.

Source: The Guardian

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What Poverty Does to the Young Brain

By Madeline Ostrander

he brain’s foundation, frame, and walls are built in the womb. As an embryo grows into a fetus, some of its dividing cells turn into neurons, arranging themselves into layers and forming the first synapses, the organ’s electrical wiring. Four or five months into gestation, the brain’s outermost layer, the cerebral cortex, begins to develop its characteristic wrinkles, which deepen further after birth. It isn’t until a child’s infant and toddler years that the structures underlying higher-level cognition—will power, emotional self-control, decision-making—begin to flourish; some of them continue to be fine-tuned throughout adolescence and into the first decade of adulthood.

Pat Levitt, a developmental neuroscientist at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, has spent much of his career studying the setbacks and accidents that can make this construction process go awry. In the nineteen-nineties, during the media panic over “crack babies,” he was among a number of scientists who questioned whether the danger of cocaine exposure in utero was being overstated. (Levitt spent two decades examining the brains of rabbit mothers and their offspring that were dosed with the drug, and says that the alarm was “an exaggeration.”) More recently, as the science director of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, he has become interested in another sort of neurotoxin: poverty.

As it turns out, the conditions that attend poverty—what a National Scientific Council report summarized as “overcrowding, noise, substandard housing, separation from parent(s), exposure to violence, family turmoil,” and other forms of extreme stress—can be toxic to the developing brain, just like drug or alcohol abuse. These conditions provoke the body to release hormones such as cortisol, which is produced in the adrenal cortex. Brief bursts of cortisol can help a person manage difficult situations, but high stress over the long term can be disastrous. In a pregnant woman, the hormone can “get through the placenta into the fetus,” Levitt told me, potentially influencing her baby’s brain and tampering with its circuitry. Later, as the same child grows up, cortisol from his own body may continue to sabotage the development of his brain.

In March, in the journal Nature Neuroscience, a group of researchers from nine hospitals and universities published a major study of more than a thousand children. They took DNA samples, made MRI scans of the children’s brains, collected data on their families’ income level and educational background, and gave them a series of tests for skills like reading and memory. The DNA samples allowed the scientists to factor out the influence of genetic heritage and look more closely at how socioeconomic status affects a growing brain. The scans focussed on over-all brain surface area, determined partly from the depth of the folds on the cortex, and the size of the hippocampus, a lumpy, curled structure nestled in the middle of the brain that stores memories. As might be expected, more educated families produced children with greater brain surface area and a more voluminous hippocampus. But income had its own distinct effect: living in the lowest bracket left children with up to six per cent less brain surface area than children from high-income families. At the lowest end of the income spectrum, little increases in family earnings could mean larger differences in the brain. At the middle and upper income levels, though, the money-brain curve flattened. In other words, wealth can’t necessarily buy a better brain, but deprivation can result in a weakened one.

A person whose brain has been undermined in this way can suffer long-term behavioral and cognitive difficulties. In March, a study appeared in the journal Acta Paediatrica showing eerie ultrasound images of fetuses that more frequently moved their mouths and touched their faces when their mothers were either stressed out or, even more so, when they smoked cigarettes—likely a sign of delayed nervous-system development. In a longer-term study published two years ago, neuroscientists at four universities scanned the brains of a group of twenty-four-year-olds and found that, in those who had lived in poverty at age nine, the brain’s centers of negative emotion were more frequently buzzing with activity, whereas the areas that could rein in such emotions were quieter. Elsewhere, stress in childhood has been shown to make people prone to depression, heart disease, and addiction in adulthood.

Over the past decade, the scientific consensus has become clear: poverty perpetuates poverty, generation after generation, by acting on the brain. The National Scientific Council has been working directly with policymakers to support measures that break this cycle, including better prenatal and pediatric care and more accessible preschool education. Levitt and his colleagues have also been advocating for changing laws that criminalize drug abuse during pregnancy, since, as they pointed out in a review paper, arrest and incarceration can also trigger the “maternal stress response system.” The story that science is now telling rearranges the morality of parenting and poverty, making it harder to blame problem children on problem parents. Building a healthy brain, it seems, is an act of barn raising.

Picture Featured Credited ¦ Newsweek

Source

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