South Africa: Government should be fixated on youth employment – Pityana

Unisa’s former head says learners should be paid to stay in school.

The preoccupation of government “day and night” should be on the 55% of young people under 30 who are unemployed, with many of them never having been employed, says Barney Pityana, the retired principal and vice chancellor of the University of South Africa.

“If [as government] I get nothing else right, this is what I must get right yesterday,” he told the Tshwane Leadership Summit on Wednesday.

Pityana was critical of the lack of imagination in government and questioned why there was not a major government initiative right now to address “this ticking time bomb”.

He added that if he was in government, he would be making a big announcement that addressing youth unemployment was the priority.

Pityana said this would involve raising dedicated capital from all businesses for this initiative, with “some of it voluntary but if it doesn’t come, by other means”.

Pass a law if necessary

He said this capital would be used to ensure, even if a law had to be passed, that every young person who was not at school, university or working, would be in a training programme for 12 months where they would get supported and receive incentives.

Money would also be made available for all kinds of training centres countrywide and when they finished their training in 12 months’ time, there would be a fund to enable them to have start-up businesses, he said.

“All over the country there will be young people well engaged in training and learning and whatever is happening so they don’t just stay on the streets or are lying about,” he said.

‘Pay learners to stay in school’

Pityana said he would also do what former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher did in paying young people of 18 and 19 years old to stay in school for another two years to get further training.

“The point I really want to make is that if you have leadership with imagination, you wouldn’t just be stuck in the old way of doing things and simply say that this is the way the economic forces are actually working and therefore there is no other way.

“That is not good enough for a country in an environment like ours. Young people in our country are entitled to expect better of us,” he said.

He pointed out that there is no other country that had an unemployment rate of 25% and retained the same government.

He said this was part of the dilemma in South Africa, which did not make sense at all, where the government does not deliver for the people at the level where it matters and yet these people still vote for the same government.

Tragic ethical gap

Turning to corruption, Pityana said there was a “tragic gap” in South Africa in that there was nobody at a high level who did not hate corruption but what they did and the way they acted was at a very different level.

“Even those who are right in the thick of it, they will tell you – and will probably mean it – that they hate corruption. It’s like seeing Ace Magashule [ANC secretary-general] saying that we the ANC have been working so hard against corruption and we say: ‘Ha! Who is talking?’”

The reference to Magashule is related to various allegations of corruption that have been levelled against him.

Pityana stressed that people have to be able to be critical of themselves and capable of having a critical insight of human conduct, including their own.

“If you don’t have a critical sense and the courage to respond to your own critical intuition and insight, you will never be able to see anything that is wrong,” he said.

Pityana referred to the extent to which good men and women for some reason had been able to capitulate to what was obviously a crooked programme.

He said those who know Brian Molefe – one-time CEO of the Public Investment Corporation, Transnet and Eskom – would never have expected a few years ago that he would be an agent for a corrupt project.

Molefe has been linked to corruption involving the Gupta family.

Pityana said Zuma boasted that he never went to school but his power over educated people would “put all of us to shame”.

“He has been able to manipulate very educated and knowledgeable people way beyond his own intelligence and education.

“What kind of country is that? How can we have a country where at the end of the day educated people cannot act like intelligent people?

“That is something that needs further examination,” he added, “because I’m no longer able to confidently say that educated people, on account of their education and knowledge, are able to distinguish and to discern right from wrong, and to know the consequences of what they are doing our country.”

Source Money Web

South Africa: With their great numbers and willpower the youth could change SA

By Sello Ivan Phahle

I wrote this article to conscientise the youth about the kingmaker status they have in the upcoming national elections.

Young people represent a potentially powerful political force in South Africa. If they all used their voices in unity, they could make a dramatic difference in the country by overthrowing the ruling party in South Africa, the ever so disappointing, arrogant and corrupt African National Congress. Youth voting statistics support this phenomenon greatly as people under the age of 29 years constitute to almost 22% – translated to roughly around nine million people – of the voting community.

With these great numbers and enough willpower they could whirl around the faces of politicians and political parties to address their burning issues and concerns; being high unemployment, inadequate access to quality and affordable education and poor infrastructure.

But unfortunately, this is only just an idea and not a reality because the youth prefer to stay on the sidelines of all politics and to aggravate the situation, politicians ignore them anyway. The main reason for this act of ignorance is that politicians tend to focus their attention on their mainstream of voters, the older generation.

This situation is not unique to South Africa, it is a global phenomenon. The number of young voters who participate in democratic elections is steadily decreasing. Most analysts identify the cause of this as the disinterest of millennials in politics altogether. But on the contrary research and opinions from the youth itself suggests otherwise.

The youth are very much well aware of the political dynamics in the country and are actively participating in political discussions.

Research by the Institute for Security Studies reveals that the youth feel isolated from formal politics, have little or no trust at all in politicians and have had negative experiences with the government from which they required services from.

Most young people are highly critical of political leaders who fail to interact with them on a meaningful and relevant level. They complain that their cries, grievances and frustrations more often than not fall on deaf ears. Available evidence suggests that just because they do not belong to any political party does not mean they are clueless about politics.

The youth actually do understand that voting is of the essence as it is a democratic privilege. They have clear views on the challenges and are more than willing to engage and act. They do not see how the system will work in their favour or how political parties will attend to their immediate challenges. Unemployment and lack of access to free quality education are pressing issues.

There seems to be an attempt by the government to silence the youth. They do not want young people to function, hence the denial of free quality education and the ever increasing unemployment rate.

But the media is also to be blamed for this, simply because the media is critical to the social agenda of any country.

When you look at the way in which young people (especially black) are portrayed in movies, telenovela, radio, magazines and newspapers, it is in a very negative way as if to say the country would be better off without these people.

The ISS research published in March also revealed that the youth are bothered by the corruption infested in our political parties, the leaders and the system as a whole. It has become apparent to the youth that political representatives such as ward councillors all the way to the number one office is corrupt and defends kleptocracy.

Over the years this behaviour seems to be rewarded by getting better position and greater political power. This behaviour never stands still. It is always getting worse or better.

When the ANC were not punished by voters for the former President Thabo Mbeki’s HIV denialism as well as the missing billions for an “Alexandra renewal”, that automatically created a context for Nkandla: Jacob Zuma to loot the state and outsource his executive office to the Guptas as well as Cyril Ramaphosa receiving Bosasa money.

When you do nothing about misbehaviour, then you are actually supporting and promoting its repeating itself – another important reason why they youth ought to vote.

Despite all the issues raised above, the question still remains. Should young people participate in the upcoming national elections and can they have a meaningful effect on the political landscape as a result of their mark on the ballot paper?

As mentioned before, the youth vote does matter, so much so that the collective “youth vote” could actually sway the election. No radical change will occur if the youth continues to take a back seat.

The youth ought to stand up for themselves and find ways for the political system to hear them out and make a change. It’s very clear that no one is going to vote and fight for the interests and concerns of young people except for young people.

For many young people, adulthood brings many new challenges, like university, marriage, buying a house, paying for your own health insurance, and/or starting a business, all of which could radically change your perspective on political issues.

While you can’t predict who or where you’ll be in four years, you can be sure that the political officials elected into office and the policies they implement will affect your life in the coming months and years.

Through voting the youth can put themselves in power regardless of whichever party leads the country. In today’s tech-savvy world, there is no excuse not to vote because you do not know enough about the parties.

In fact, one might find it harder to escape the day-to-day political news than subscribe to it. In an era in which Twitter is a preferred means of communication for many political leaders has become as crucial as their party’s websites for disseminating information about relevant issues.

The current online climate allows young voters to form a fuller picture of the candidates and their platforms in a medium they are familiar with. The act of voting can push parties in the right and desired direction of the youth and most importantly consistently so.

They will energise the political system and steer their countries into a new and fresh direction. A direction that will uplift and benefit all generations and generations to come. The youth vote has the potential to be extremely influential.

Increasing youth voter turnout is very much crucial in getting the millennial generation to grasp on and never let go of the electoral process. In this manner they will grow up to be well informed and responsible citizens and most importantly the culture of voting shall not die out. Instead it shall continue to grow and make our country purposeful.

Sello Ivan Phahle is managing director of SIP Media

Source City Press

South Africa: PSL Confirm Changes To Kick-Off Times, While 6 Serve Suspension

By Soccer Laduma

The Premier Soccer League has confirmed changes to the kick-off times due to the change in season.

With just six games left to play in the current 2018/19 Absa Premiership campaign, the league has since changed afternoon kick-off times from 15h30, to 15h00.

However, the PSL confirmed that this would apply to all fixtures across the PSL, including the National First Division and cup competitions, such as the Nedbank Cup which is currently underway.

“This is in line with PSL’s standard practice of adjusting afternoon kick-off times in winter and in summer.”

“The 15h30 kick-off time will now move to 15h00. This will apply to all Absa Premiership, National First Division and Cup Competitions,” as stated in a press release.

In addition, heading into this weekend’s Absa Premiership clashes, there are currently six players serving a suspension.

Thembinkosi Lorch from Orlando Pirates, Black Leopards’ Khomotso Masia and Khuliso Mudua, Chippa United’s Tercious Malepe and Rusaigh Gamildien and AmaZulu’s Phumlani Gumede will all miss this weekend’s league action.

Source Soccer Laduma

South Africa to create more than 2000 jobs for youths through the Vaal River rehabilitation initiative

The South African government is set to create more than 2000 jobs for the youths through the rehabilitation of all wastewater treatment infrastructure in the Vaal Triangle.

This comes after the government on Friday announced that it has set aside R341 million for the initiative.

Initiated last year, the project is part of the Vaal River Rehabilitation Project which was established after raw sewage flowed into the river from pump stations in the Emfuleni Municipality on the northern bank of the river, posing environmental and health risks.

It comes after the signing of the implementation protocol last month by his department, the Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs Department in Gauteng, Emfuleni Local Municipality, South African National Defence Force (SANDF), Municipal Infrastructure Support Agent (MISA) and the East Rand Water Care Company (ERWAT).

Water and Sanitation Minister Gugile Nkwinti recently told media that the project will see 250 youth and community members being trained on plumbing, carpentry, brick-laying, paving and agriculture.

“The SANDF will also train 2000 youth and community members to guard 44 pump stations until the completion of the project, which is projected for March 2020,” Nkwinti said.

“In terms of the Implementation Protocol, my department appointed ERWAT, which is an entity of the Ekurhuleni Metro, as the implementing agent. As a wastewater specialist company, ERWAT will ensure that all wastewater treatment infrastructure is resuscitated to an operational state and that pollution in the Vaal River is stopped.”

The Minister also informed the community that Module 6 of the Sebokeng Wastewater Treatment Works, a regional bulk sanitation infrastructure, is under construction and projected to be completed by the end of May 2019.

A total of 120 000 households in the southern part of Gauteng will benefit from module 6 of the project while module 7 is expected to start by July 2019.

Nkwinti went on to also announce the establishment of the Vaal Catchment Management Agency in a bid to protect water resources in the area.

He said the work of the agency will include river monitoring, reporting on pollution incidents and dealing with polluters while also raising awareness on protection of the water resources and environment.

“The Vaal River Catchment Management Agency will ensure that water is protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled in a sustainable and equitable manner,”, the minister said.

Source African Daily Voice

Nigeria: UNODC to engage youths on crime prevention through sports

As the World celebrates the International Day of Sports, the United Nations Office on Drug and Crime (UNODC), has said that plans were on to engage Nigerian youths on crime prevention through sports programmes.

News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that the UN General Assembly declared April 6 every year as the Imternational Day of sports for Development and Peace.

Mr Sylvester Atere, UNODC’s Outreach and Communications Officer in a statement made available to NAN on Saturday in Abuja, said there was hardly any place on earth where the power of sports football in particular was more present than in Nigeria.

He said this was best summed up by Gianni Infantino, President of the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) when he visited Lagos in February 2018.

Atere Quoting Infantino said: “I was told that in Nigeria, football is passion but it is a lie because it is more than that. In Nigeria, I was told that football is love, but it is a lie it is more than that.

“In Nigeria, I was told that football is a religion, but it is a lie. It is more than that. In Nigeria, football is life.”

Atere said that it was on that note the UNODC launched its Youth Crime Prevention through Sports Initiative within the framework of the Global Programme for the Implementation of the Doha Declaration.

He said that under the slogan “Line Up Live Up” (LULU) the initiative has designed a programme for youth, living in neighbourhoods severely affected by crime, drugs and violence, aimed to engage them through sports.

Atere explained that the initiative also seeks to help youths build their resilience and leadership in standing up for themselves and others against these societal ills.

He explained that the potential of sports to promote peace and the rule of law appears unlimited, thus rolling out the LULU programme to Nigeria.

“In a 10-week programme, sports coaches, teachers and others working with youth in sports settings build valuable life skills, such as resisting social pressures.

“The programme will include among others like coping with anxiety and communicating effectively with peers, through a set of interactive and fun exercises.

“The programme has been successfully tested in several countries, including South Africa and in Brazil.

Source PMN

South Africa: SA Youths Equipped for Industry 4.0

By Akani Chauke

AFRICA is in a positive position to seize the opportunities presented by the fourth industrial revolution thanks to a broad youth base.

These prospects have received a boost following the graduation of 165 students at an academy operated by a leading technology company east of Johannesburg.

The students from the Midrand Samsung Engineering Academy have graduated at the Ekhuruleni West College in Boksburg, joining the mission for Africa to be amongst the leaders of this next phase in the continent’s growth.

Nithia Pillay, Samsung Africa Director (Customer Service), said these graduates were part of Samsung’s on-going vision to develop skilled electronics technicians and engineers by bridging the current skills gap.

“Engineering academies across Africa have already seen thousands of students graduate with hands-on, practical skills at no cost, enabling them to move into jobs after they graduate,” Pillay added.

Sung Yoon, Chief Executive Officer and President of Samsung Africa, Ntombizodwa Dangazele Academy Acting Principal and representatives from the Department of Higher Education and Training, Department of Basic Education and parents attended the graduation.

Additionally, programmes such as the Engineering Academy have increased opportunities for women to enter into trades that were traditionally reserved for men.

Source cajnewsafrica

South Africa: May 8 elections: 40% of Indian youth will not vote


AS the May 8 election draws closer, research has found a high level of discontent among youth despite a solid belief in the duty to vote.

Dr Ben Roberts, of the Human Sciences Research Council, said 72% of Indian South African youth believed their votes would not make a difference. Of this, 40% indicated they would not vote.

The research, conducted via the council’s Democracy, Governance and Service Delivery Programme, looked at young people of voting age, and their attitudes and intentions towards voting.

It found two prevailing representations of South Africa’s youth have continued to predominate.

“The first portrays young South Africans as politically engaged drivers of change, drawing on the experiences of the recent #FeesMustFall movement as well as reflections of the youth activism of the 1980s.

“In contrast, the second tends to depict the post-apartheid generation as politically disillusioned and disengaged from conventional politics, as part of a broader narrative concerning democratic recession and crisis.”

The overall mood, said Roberts, was quite negative with a high level of discontent.

He said the levels of satisfaction with democracy and trust in political institutions, and national and local government were surprising commonalities with young and older voters.

“People are dissatisfied across the board and there is a steady decline in confidence.”

He said the driving force behind the youth not voting was non-registration and the lack of ID books.

“But the underlying reason is disillusionment. It’s a case of, I want to punish parties by not voting. The youth have become quite critical citizens, threatening parties to either shape up or we will disengage.”

He said one difference between the youth and older voters was loyalty. “If the party did not meet their expectations, they would swing vote.”

Political analyst Sanusha Naidu said: “The youth vote is going to evolve and we need to look at what shapes the mind of young people.”

She believed race, class, inequality and an overall generational divide would play a factor.

“They are not homogeneous. Their vote is underpinned by a generational divide, where youth are no longer held victim to the historical narrative. They are very clear on what their needs are.

“Their struggle is the here and now and material circumstances they find themselves in.”

Naidu said many young people would look at the “material struggle” of their parents, who have not reaped the benefits post-apartheid.

“There is a very specific dynamic in South Africa where the youth are saying: ‘We are not benefiting, we have been marginalised and stuck with poverty and will demand what we deem is rightfully ours’.”

Source IOL

Young South Africans are politically engaged, but can’t see how the system works for them, studies find

By Lelethu Tonisi

At a recent seminar to discuss youth politics, the 2019 elections and beyond, two research papers were presented, both exploring youth participation and engagement with South African politics. The picture they paint raises interesting questions about the legitimacy of political parties and the extent to which they reflect on young people in their manifestos.

Young people are typically perceived as apathetic and disengaged, but new research by the Institute for Security Studies and the Youth Lab shows they are actually highly engaged in political processes.

“It might be different to the formal ways of voting and elections, but they are still highly critical of political leaders,” said Miche Roberts when presenting the outcome of the ISS research at the Auwal Socio-Economic Research Institute seminar at the Market Theatre on 27 March 2019.

And, “just because young people are not in a political party doesn’t mean they don’t know what’s going on,” MD of Youth Lab Pearl Pillay said when discussing her organisation’s work.

Roberts helped conduct the research by the Institute for Security Studies to assess reasons why young people vote, what informs their voting behaviour and how gender roles play a role in protest behaviour.

The ISS research focused specifically on communities considered high protest areas. The chosen sites were Katlehong, Eldorado Park, KwaThema, Atteridgeville, and Actonville. Ages were split between 18 to 19-year-olds and 20 to 29-year-olds to reflect both new and experienced voters.

Roberts said there wasn’t a lot of literature review on the gendered nature of political participation and voting in the country, on how young men and women engage with one another in protests and the perceptions they have of one another, the roles that they identify with and how each chooses to vote and protest.

She said during their discussions, young people mentioned unemployment, corruption, crime, and drug use as key issues they hoped to see addressed. Interestingly enough, land expropriation hardly came up in the conversation. She says this illustrates the extent to which political parties actually consider what young people are concerned about.

“It also goes back to the question of whether young people are constituencies or used as a political ploy to get votes,” she said.

The ISS research finds that young people believe that voting is important because they live in a democracy. It represents freedom from oppression, but they opt out of voting altogether when they see it as offering no benefit to them. Parties making empty promises deter them from voting, says Roberts.

“While voting intention is very high — according to Ipsos polls, 75% people, more or less,(have) register(ed), but only 50% are expected to turn out,” she says.

According to Roberts, an interesting aspect of their findings is the transactional and reactional nature young people have towards voting — that young people take votes as a transaction in exchange for services that they would not necessarily obtain in other ways, for example, jobs and drivers’ licences.

In KwaThema they found that young people were being asked to vote in exchange for jobs by local municipalities and councillors.

“One person said to us: ‘The other day I was attending an ANC meeting and they explained that if we keep attending meetings and vote, we will get jobs,’ ” Roberts said.

In terms of protest action, Roberts said they found that young men self-identified as belonging on the frontline because they believed they were stronger, more physical and angrier about the lack of service delivery. Women, on the other hand, were considered the brains behind the protest and more peaceful in their approach.

She said one reason behind heightened protest behaviour among the youth that came to the fore was because they were not getting access to services and institutions.

“Young people are not necessarily impulsive, but there is a long list of participation and engagement with institutions before a protest is instigated,” she said.

Pillay said that from the Youth Lab study, they found that although there was great political engagement, there was a rejection of formal elections and political processes and a move towards alternative organising and engagement with political topics.

“Just because young people are not in a political party doesn’t mean they don’t know what’s going on,” she said.

Youth Lab is a youth policy think tank working to build the capacity of young people in the spaces that they work. They compiled the South African youth manifesto from the understanding that young people were largely excluded from the manifesto-making process despite making up a large portion of the country’s population. The consolidated report highlighted the voice of the youth, contrasted with what political parties were saying in their manifestos to asses if they reflected the voices of the young.

She said what they found was that young people still wanted to be included and for their voices to be heard, that they want to participate in political engagement, but were unable to see how the system worked for them.

“There’s a rejection of many different things. Once people found out about the kind of electoral system we use, for instance, they were unhappy and asked why people can’t be elected directly. So, there is a rethinking of the role of political parties and what elections actually mean,” she said.

She said there was an idea among young people that elections are not a one-off event, that they represent an entire cycle of events that leaves communities forgotten.

Pillay said young people had picked up on the fact that political parties were campaigning just for votes, but not doing the work of community development.

“They are in tune with the level at which parties are being genuine or not,” she said.

Mosa Phadi, a researcher at the Public Affairs Research Institute, said that although the two reports and their findings were significant, they did not tap into where the country was 25 years into South Africa’s democracy and how the youth operated in that space. She said 25 years later, young people find themselves living in a country where their grandparents and parents could only dream of a good life and freedom, but were presently watching a democracy their forebears had hoped for burn, in some cases literally.

“As we have seen in the past 25 years there have been moments of rapture, regression, disconnect, and lull, and I think the youth has been very important in operating in those spaces,” Phadi said.

According to Phadi, youth participation was always seen through formal participation such as elections, and which is used to measure representation and a sense of voice. But as both reports have indicated this may not be the most accurate measure.

“They may not know what proportional direct representation is and what it means for elections, but there is an element of knowing where the site of power lies,” she says.

From her Marxist views, Phadi said did not see the youth as a class, but rather as a reflection of the mood of society.

Source Daily Maverick

$10 million boost to give African youth new opportunities

A South African businessman has been talking about his donation of $10 million to the #FundKidsLikeSuccess campaign, a campaign that will help kids throughout Africa have access to an education.

The money, which will establish a partnership between several organizations, is coming from South African businessman Xolane Ndhlovu, which has lured hands-on involvement from the multi-millionaire in charitable projects around the region.

The campaign aims to initiate an international movement that will inspire others to take part. The funds are being managed by UMEH Group, working with other organizations through social media campaigns.

The money will be used to reach out and help selected kids throughout Africa that do not have access to education. The project aims to cover educational costs, clothes, and living expenses for children that lack financial means, also encouraging others to participate and help.

“This project constitutes the beginning of a fascinating new activity that will become an important and much needed focus in my life. I am proud of what UMEH has achieved and what we’re looking to achieve”, said Ndhlovu.

The project was initiated by Ndhlovu , a man who also came from humble beginnings and a conflicted upbringing. Now a major business Tycoon in South Africa, Xolane Ndhlovu is the founder and CEO of UMEH Group, a holding company in South Africa affiliated with several prominent firms.

Source Baltimore

More than 50% of South African youth can’t pay tertiary tuition

Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) on Thursday released a thematic report confirming that about 51% of South Africa’s youth between ages 18 – 24 do not have the financial means to pay for their tertiary tuition, SAnews reported.

Furthermore, 18% of those who were not attending educational institutions attributed it to poor academic performance.

Titled – Education Series Volume V Higher Education and Skills in South Africa, the report, which uses data from the General Household Survey (GHS) 2017, indicates that only 33.8% of youth aged 18 – 24 were attending educational institutions.

Among those, 22.2% were attending school while 11.6% were attending post-school educational institutions.

Furthermore, the report shows that the general trend in participation in all institutions of post-school learning was upward, with total enrolment in higher education institutions in 2016 amounted to 49.9% of all enrolments within the sector.

The TVET colleges amounted to 30.8% of all enrolments; CET colleges 11.9% of all enrolments and private colleges 7.4% of all enrolments within the sector.

Despite gains in higher education participation rates, the report noted that gender disparity was still a challenge, as was participation equity for students from low-income backgrounds.

Female participation in 2016 at public universities was 58%, and 57% at TVET colleges.

Most students were enrolled in undergraduate NQF Level 7 programmes at universities, mostly studying for qualifications in the fields of business, commerce and management sciences, education or engineering.

Most students enrolled at TVET colleges in 2016 were studying for Report 191 qualifications.

Report 191 programmes also known as NATED are delivered under the auspices of the Department of Higher Education and Training and quality assured by Umalusi.

The programmes consist of 18 months of theoretical studies at colleges and 18 months of relevant practical application in workplaces.

Engineering studies range from N1 – N6 while Business and Utility Studies range from N4 – N6.

According to the report, the number of graduates from public higher universities more than doubled from 92 874 in 2000 to 203 076 in 2016.

In 2016, the number of graduates from TVET and private colleges stood at 135 492.

The time taken by students to complete their undergraduate qualifications has also improved over time.

However, the higher education system still has challenges in terms of their success rates and poor completion rates.

Many students drop out without completing a qualification, or they take up to six years to complete a three-year qualification.

Very few students progress to advanced NQF levels of study (NQF levels 8–10).

Honours students stood at 19.8%, masters 6.3% and doctoral studies 1.4% of the overall tertiary qualifications awarded in 2016.

According to the report, close to 47% of youth aged 20–24 years who held bachelor degrees or qualifications equivalent to NQF Level 7 came from the highest household income quintile.

In comparison, only 7.4% of youth who held qualifications equivalent to NQF Level 7 came from the lowest household income quintile.

Furthermore, close to 36% of youth holding postgraduate degrees or qualifications equivalent to NQF Levels 8–10 came from the highest household income quintile.

Source African Daily Voice